サモエード祖語の語彙

元ネタは Aikio, Ante (2002), "New and Old Samoyed etymologies", Finnisch-Ugrische Forschungen, 57, ISSN 0355-1253

  1. サモエード祖語の語彙
  2. 1.New Uralic etymologies
    1. PS caŋa- ‘to rub, wear out (tr.)’ , caŋo- ‘to wear out (intr.)’
    2. PS *jqtq ‘block of wood’
    3. PS *jempq ‘clothes’
    4. PS *kajkq ‘spirit, god; idol’
    5. PS karpq ‘fire?’ , der. karpq-r- ‘to blaze’
    6. PS kejm(e) ‘female, mare’ ~ kejwe
    7. PS ker- ‘to dress, put on (clothes, a piece of clothing)’ ~ kerq-
    8. PS *ketq- ‘to wrap up’
    9. PS *kqnse- ‘to cool down’
    10. PS *mqjq- ‘to become happy’
    11. PS *mqja ‘earth, land, terrain’
    12. PS *7nimse ‘breast, milk’
    13. PS *pur ‘smoke; blizzard’ (derivatives)
    14. PS *sajq- ‘(to wage) war’ (derivatives)
    15. PS *salq- ‘to flash, lighten’
    16. PS *tajwa- ‘to arrive, reach; to bring’
    17. PS *tense- ‘to stop, calm down, lie down, stay still’
    18. PS *terq ‘full; contents’
    19. PS *time ‘tooth’
    20. PS wanc•- ‘to sneak near’ ~ (der.) wanc•l- ~ *wanc•r-
    21. PS 8e- ‘to drink’ (only in derivatives): PS 8e-r- ‘to drink’ ,PS *8e-kql-
    22. PS *äs•l- ‘to step over’
  3. 2.Arguments for new approaches to previously proposed Uralic etymologies
    1. PS *äs•l- ‘to step over’
    2. PS *käjwa ‘spade’
    3. PS *kqr ‘morning’
    4. PS *kiwe ‘snake, worm’
    5. PS tqnta- ‘to teach, to accustom to’ tqntö- ‘to learn, to get used to’
    6. PS *waŋkq ‘hole, cave, den’
    7. PS *jürq- ‘to get lost; (>) to forget’
  4. part2
    1. PS åjå ‘meat, body’ , der. åjå-på(-jq) ‘raw, uncooked’
    2. PS *jüjq ‘lichen (on trees?)’
    3. PS *kqrå ‘bent, crooked; bend’
    4. PS *kåntq- ‘to hunt; to kill; sacrificial animal’
    5. PS ket (= JJ kit) ‘shape, appearance, figure’
    6. PS *kürq- ‘band (for tightening something)’
    7. PS *7n(er ‘wet and sticky substance’
    8. PS pqjä- ‘to chop wood’ , der. pqjä-l- ‘to hit’, pqj-qt-, pqj-qr- ‘to chop wood’
    9. PS *påncq ‘hem, lower edge (e.g., of a parka or tent cloth)’
    10. PS såŋk•- ‘to stick (into)’ , såŋkq ‘penis’
    11. PS sälä ‘sharpness’, sälä- (? säli-) ‘to sharpen, grind’ (= JJ selä(-)), der. *sälü- ‘to rub the antlers against a tree (in order to get the skin off; of reindeer)’
    12. PS *titq- ‘to open’
    13. PS wålä ? ~ wål• ‘song; legend’
    14. PS wårå (? ~ wår•) ‘mountain, ridge’

1.New Uralic etymologies

PS caŋa- ‘to rub, wear out (tr.)’ , caŋo- ‘to wear out (intr.)’

[> Nenets tanga-], [> Nenets tango-, Kamass tan5o-] (SW: 151)
< PU *vcaŋa- ‘to strike, beat, rub’

PS *jqtq ‘block of wood’

[> Nenets yødo ‘block of wood (e.g. under a boat, or for beating something); pole (in a trap)’2, Enets (der.) дёго' дёзозту" ‘pole in a trap’ (дёго' ‘trap’), Selkup vcat{i ‘beater, cudgel’] (SW: 36)
< PU *luta ‘block of wood? (some simple wooden tool)’

PS *jempq ‘clothes’

[> Nganasan де˙хя ‘clothes’, (der.) d'embitqs{i ‘to dress, get dressed’, Nenets (der.) yempøq- id., Selkup (der.?) t'empq- ‘to dress (tr.), (der.) t'empqt- ‘to get dressed’] (SW: 42–43; Helimski 1983: 210)
< PU *lämpi ‘warm(th)’

PS *kajkq ‘spirit, god; idol’

[> Nganasan koika ‘idol’, Nenets xæxo ‘spirit, god’, Enets kaha, kiho ‘spirit, god; idol; helping spirit of a shaman’, Selkup k5aga ‘deceased’, Mator (der.?) kajgo ‘idol’] (SW: 51; Helimski 1997: 262; Katzschmann & Pusztay 1978: 90–91; Janhunen 1998: 476)
< PU *kod'ka ‘spirit, ghost’

PS karpq ‘fire?’ , der. karpq-r- ‘to blaze’

[> Nenets xarpo ‘aurora borealis’ (in Forest Nenets ‘a large fire, e.g. when a piece of land is set on fire to drive away the mosquitos’), Enets kabo ‘aurora borealis’], [> Nenets xarpør-] (Lehtisalo 1956: 167; Tereshchenko 1965: 751; Katzschmann & Pusztay 1978: 79)
< PU *korpi- ‘to blaze, scorch etc.’

PS kejm(e) ‘female, mare’ ~ kejwe

[> Nenets (der.) syibyako, Enets s5e ‘female’, Selkup sJüm, Kamass vsujmu, Mator k‰ım ‘mare’] [> Mator kejbe ‘mare’] (SW: 66–67; Helimski 1986: 127–128; 1997: 272)
< PU *käd'wä ‘female’

PS ker- ‘to dress, put on (clothes, a piece of clothing)’ ~ kerq-

[> Selkup vser-, Kamass vs5er-, Mator ker-] [> Nganasan 7serq-, Nenets syerø-, Enets seri-] (SW: 68; Helimski 1997: 275)
< PU *käri- ‘to wrap, tie, thread’

PS *ketq- ‘to wrap up’

[> Nenets syedø- ‘to wrap up a child, lay a child in its cradle’, (der.) syedoq ‘a blanket made of reindeer skin, with which a child is tucked up in a cradle’, Mator kedq- ‘to wrap up’] (Lehtisalo 1956: 441; Helimski 1997: 271)
< PU *kätki- ‘to wrap up (a child?), to lay a child in its cradle’

PS *kqnse- ‘to cool down’

[> Nenets (derivatives) xønco ‘cool’, xøncyim- ‘to cool down’, Selkup kavzi-, Kamass kqnzq-] (SW: 52)
< PU *kä7n7sä- ‘to freeze’

PS *mqjq- ‘to become happy’

[> Nenets møyø-]
< PU *muja- ‘to become happy; happiness, smile’

PS *mqja ‘earth, land, terrain’

[> Nganasan mou ‘earth’, Selkup mavci ‘forest, tundra’, Kamass mija ‘mountain’, Mator bijä ‘mountain’] (SW: 85; Helimski 1997: 218)
< PU *mud'a ‘land, earth, soil’

PS *7nimse ‘breast, milk’

[> Selkup 7nipsq, 7nepsq ‘breast, milk’] (SW: 110; Helimski 1983: 129)
< PU 7nim-7sä ‘breast, teat’ ¬ 7nimi- ‘to suck’

PS *pur ‘smoke; blizzard’ (derivatives)

[> Nenets pur oq ‘smoke fire against mosquitos; haze’, Selkup purq{i ‘smoke’, purq5at ‘blizzard’, purqal't{i- ‘to get covered, blown over (by snow, sand etc.)’] (SW: 131; Erdélyi 1970: 196; SSA s.v. purku)
< PU purki ‘smoke, spray, blizzard’, verb. purki- ‘to smoke, spray, whirl’

PS *sajq- ‘(to wage) war’ (derivatives)

[> Nenets sayuo ~ sayuwo ‘soldier, warrior, enemy’, sayuodør- ‘to wage war’, sayonor- id., sayuodørma ‘war’, etc.] (Lehtisalo 1956: 402; Tereshchenko 1965: 42)
< PU *7sod'a ‘war’

PS *salq- ‘to flash, lighten’

[> Nenets (der.) salowø- ‘to flash, shimmer’, Mator salq- ‘to lighten’, (der.) salqmqr- id.] (SW: 135; Helimski 1997: 334)
< PU *7sala- ‘to flash, lighten’

PS *tajwa- ‘to arrive, reach; to bring’

[> Nganasan tojbu- ‘to take, transport, deliver’, Nenets tæwø- ‘to arrive; to reach, catch up with; to bring’, Enets toe- ‘to reach’, ? Selkup (der.?) tur{i- ‘to end’ (? < tajwa-ra-), Kamass tu- ‘to arrive, to reach (the destination); to get on, make progress; to appear’, Mator tajbq- (an auxiliary verb with a resultative meaning)] (SW: 146; Helimski 1997: 349)
< PU
tolwa- ‘? to bring / take’

PS *tense- ‘to stop, calm down, lie down, stay still’

[> Nenets (derivatives) tyencyer-, tyencyena-] (Lehtisalo 1956: 507; Tereshchenko 1965: 649)
< PU sa7n7sa- ~ sä7n7sä- ‘to stand (still)’

PS *terq ‘full; contents’

[> Nganansan t'erq ‘interior’, Nenets tyero ‘something inside something else: e.g. liquor in a glass, items in a sledge, inhabitant of a land’, (der.) tyerøq- ‘to be full’] ~ tirq [> Selkup tir{i ‘entirity’, der. tir{il' ‘full’, tir{imp{i- ‘to become full’] (SW: 158)
< PU
täwdi- ‘full; to become full’

PS *time ‘tooth’

[> Nganasan t'imi, Nenets tyibya, Enets t'‰ı, Selkup tim{i, Mator time] (SW: 163; Helimski 1997: 360)
< PU sew(i)-mä ¬ sewi- ‘to eat’

PS wanc•- ‘to sneak near’ ~ (der.) wanc•l- ~ *wanc•r-

[> Selkup квончи-] [> Selkup k8ental-, Mator mandql-] [> Enets bador- ‘to hunt wild reindeer’, Mator (der.) mandqra ‘wolf’] (Helimski 1997: 300)
< PU *wanvca- ‘to go slowly and cautiously’

PS 8e- ‘to drink’ (only in derivatives): PS 8e-r- ‘to drink’ ,PS *8e-kql-

[> Nenets nger-, Selkup ör- ‘to become intoxicated, get drunk’, Mator 8er-], [> Nenets ngexøl- ‘to drink with one gulp’, Enets ihora- ‘to drink excessively’] (SW: 21–22; Helimski 1997: 238)
< PU *j{ixi- ‘to drink’

PS *äs•l- ‘to step over’

[> Selkup 5asel-] (Sammallahti 1979: 26)
< PU *a7skili- ‘(to) step’

2.Arguments for new approaches to previously proposed Uralic etymologies

PS *äs•l- ‘to step over’

[> Selkup 5asel-] (Sammallahti 1979: 26)
< PU *a7skili- ‘(to) step’

PS *käjwa ‘spade’

[> Nganasan kajbu, Enets sea, Nenets syíwa, Kamass k5o] (SW: 63)
< PU *kajwa- ‘to dig; spade’

PS *kqr ‘morning’

[> Selkup qar, Kamass (der.) karqld'en ‘tomorrow’] (UEW: 193)
< PU *kudi ‘morning’

PS *kiwe ‘snake, worm’

[> Nenets syibya ‘larva under the skin of reindeer’, Selkup vsü ‘snake’, (compound) ütvsi ‘leech’ (üt ‘water’)] (SW: 72)
< PU küji-wä ‘snake’ ¬ küji id. (? ~ *kiji)

PS tqnta- ‘to teach, to accustom to’ tqntö- ‘to learn, to get used to’

[> Nenets (der.) tønara-, Enets tadda-], [> Nenets tønyo-, Selkup tant{i-] (SW: 147)
< PU tun-ta- ‘to teach, to accustom to’, a causative of tuni- ‘to learn,
to get used to’

PS *waŋkq ‘hole, cave, den’

[> Nganasan banka, Nenets wangko, Enets baggo, Selkup (der.) kongqr] (SW: 171–172)
< PU *woŋki id.

PS *jürq- ‘to get lost; (>) to forget’

[> Nenets yurø- ‘to forget’, Enets (der.) jurota- id., Selkup ür{i- ‘to get lost’, (der.) ürq{i- ‘to lose one’s way’, Kamass d'ur- ‘to get lost, disappear’, (der.) d'urvzu- ‘to lose one’s way’] (SW: 50)
< PU *juri- ‘to go round, spin, (>) to get lost’

part2

PS åjå ‘meat, body’ , der. åjå-på(-jq) ‘raw, uncooked’

[> NenT ngaya ‘body’, EnF aja id., Slk uÄq7cq ‘meat’, Kam uja ‘meat; body’], [> NenT ngayabeyo id., EnF ajDbi id., Ngan (Castrén) ~ ôbua id., Slk uÄq7cqpq id.] (SW: 17; JurWb: 15; MWbEnz no. 25, 27; SlkWb no. 162; KamWb: 80)
< PU *od'a ‘wet, raw; (raw) meat’

PS *jüjq ‘lichen (on trees?)’

[> NenT yuyo ‘lichen on trees’, Ngan diø ‘lichen’] (JurWb: 140; NgSlov: 44)
< PU jäwji (jewji?) ‘lichen on trees’

PS *kqrå ‘bent, crooked; bend’

[> NenT xøra ‘bent, crooked; river bend; debt’, Ngan køru ‘manner, habit’, (der.) køru¥zusa ‘to get accustomed to, into the habit of something’, Slk (der.) >karu ‘bend’, >karukka ‘bent, crooked (of trees)’, Kam kårål'åm ‘to wind itself’] (SW: 55; JurWb: 151; NgSlov: 83–84; SlkWb no. 2225; KamWb: 26)
< PU *kura ‘bent, crooked; bend’

PS *kåntq- ‘to hunt; to kill; sacrificial animal’

[> NenT xano ‘sacrificial animal’, (der.) xanos- ‘to murder’, EnT (der.) kaduXi ‘murderer, assassin’, Ngan kontø ‘sacrificial animal’, kontøu ‘skilled, lucky hunter’, kontøø ‘catch’, kondüs- ‘to murder, assassinate’, kondüXmqq ‘murderer, assassin; band leader; rascal’; Mat (der.) kandqgat ‘pugnacious, eager to fight’] (JurWb: 170; NgSlov: 69; MatSpr: 265–266)
< PU konta- ~ kunta- ‘hunting party; to hunt, to catch, to kill’

PS ket (= JJ kit) ‘shape, appearance, figure’

[> NenT syiq ‘shape, figure’, EnT 7si’ ‘resemblance, similarity, likeness; omen, sign’, Ngan sy” ‘shape, figure, appearance; picture; shadow’; also grammaticalized as a personal pronoun stem: Ngan syty ‘he, she’, sytyú ‘they’; NenT syiq-, EnT 7si”, Slk 7si- (personal pronoun stem used in the accusative case, in Nen and En in the genitive as well)] (SW: 70–71; JurWb: 442; MWbEnz no. 2406, 2407; NgSlov: 161; SlkWb no. 2428)
< PU *keti ‘skin, hide’

PS *kürq- ‘band (for tightening something)’

[> NenT (der.) syuroq ‘waist band of trousers, etc.’, Ngan (der.) kirimi ‘band (for closing a sack, etc.)’, kirømøsy ‘to tighten’] (JurWb: 454; NgSlov: 65)
< PU käwTi (? ~ kewTi) ‘strap, rope’

PS *7n(er ‘wet and sticky substance’

[> NenT nyer ‘sap; white (of an egg)’; Slk 7nir ‘sperm’] (SW: 109–110; JurWb: 315; NenSlov: 304; SlkWb no. 1708)
< PU *7n{iri ‘wetness, dampness; wet place, bog; wet and sticky substance?’

PS pqjä- ‘to chop wood’ , der. pqjä-l- ‘to hit’, pqj-qt-, pqj-qr- ‘to chop wood’

[> Ngan hoidi], [> Slk pa7cal-, Mat häjäl-], [> NenT pæøq-, NenF pâyâq-, EnF petur-] (SW: 112; JurWb: 352; MWbEnz no. 817; NgSlov: 194; SlkWb no. 499; MatSpr: 242)
< PU *pud'a- ‘to hit, split, break?’

PS *påncq ‘hem, lower edge (e.g., of a parka or tent cloth)’

[> NenT panº ‘hem (of a piece of clothing, a tent cloth, the tent door)’, EnF (der.) pádde ‘seam (in a skin)’, Ngan (der.) hontøø ‘hem; skirt’, Slk (der.) p5onvcar ‘hem (e.g., of a parka), edge, border’, Kam (der.) pcö4ndJår ‘front of a parka’, ? Mat handa ‘lower edge, hem’ (the attestation is uncertain)] (SW: 116; JurWb: 346; MWbEnz no. 729; NgSlov: 197; SlkWb no. 486; MatSpr: 240)
< PU *ponvci ‘tail’

PS såŋk•- ‘to stick (into)’ , såŋkq ‘penis’

[> Slk suÄqnkq-], [> NenT sangko, EnT sago] (SlkWb no. 2625; JurWb: 406; MWbEnz no. 2116)
< PU *7saŋka- ‘to sting, stick’

PS sälä ‘sharpness’, sälä- (? säli-) ‘to sharpen, grind’ (= JJ selä(-)), der. *sälü- ‘to rub the antlers against a tree (in order to get the skin off; of reindeer)’

[> NenT (irreg.) syíl- ‘to sharpen, grind’, Ngan 7sel{i ‘sharpness’, selidi ‘to sharpen’, Slk selq- id., Kam s5elql'em ‘to grind; to rub’], [> NenT syelø-, NenF selhyø-, EnT seri-, Ngan (der.) 7seluq ‘reindeer without skin on its antlers’] (SW: 141; JurWb: 436, 446; NgSlov: 149; SlkWb no. 2736; KamWb: 58; Helimski 1996: 65–66; Wagner-Nagy 2001: 17)
< PU *7sälä- ‘to cut’

PS *titq- ‘to open’

[> Slk t‰ tq- ‘to open wide (the mouth), to gape’, Kam vsi’d- ‘to open’] (SlkWb no. 1096; KamWb: 64)
< PU
tütki- ‘to open, spread out’

PS wålä ? ~ wål• ‘song; legend’

[> Ngan bøly ‘song’, EnF bari ‘song’, (?) NenT (der.?) walo ~ waqlo ‘legend’] (NgSlov: 30; MWbEnz no. 106; NenSlov: 38, 53)
< PU *wala ‘song ?’

PS wårå (? ~ wår•) ‘mountain, ridge’

[> Ngan børu ‘mountain; cliff’, Slk k5urq ‘grove with fir trees; mountain ridge’, (der.) k5ura ‘wooded ridge’, Kam b5or ‘mountain, ridge’] (NgSlov: 33; SlkWb no. 2288, 2292; KamWb: 10)
< PU *wara ‘mountain, hill, ridge’

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Pub: 10 Apr 2022 12:47 UTC
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