Tocharian Dの動詞

  1. Tocharian Dの動詞
    1. strong class 1(Vowel + y/i)
    2. strong class 2a(Vowel + w/u)
    3. strong class 2b
    4. strong class 3(Vowel + m,n,l,r + another consonant)
    5. strong class 4(Vowel + l, r, m or n + no other consonant)
    6. strong class 5(any consonant other than y, w, l, r, m or n)
    7. strong class 6(Vowel + a single consonant, if the present stem had a or o in late PIE)
    8. strong class 7(reduplication)
      1. strong class 7a(a + i)
      2. strong class 7b(a + u)
      3. strong class 7c(a + l, r, m or n + another consonant (if no other consonant follows, the verb belongs to class 6))
      4. strong class 7d(ē)
      5. strong class 7e(ō)
    9. weak class1
      1. weak class1(i)(no suffix in the present, and no suffix in the past)
      2. weak class1(ii)( the suffix -j- in the present and no suffix in the past)
      3. weak class1(iii)(the suffix -j- in the present and -i- in the past)
      4. weak class2(with a suffix -ō-)
      5. weak class3 j-present(*-ja- in the past, and no suffix in the past)
  2. まとめ
    1. strong verb
      1. strong class 1(Vowel + y/i)
      2. strong class 2a(Vowel + w/u)
      3. strong class 2b
      4. strong class 3(Vowel + m,n,l,r + another consonant)
      5. strong class 4(Vowel + l, r, m or n + no other consonant)
      6. strong class 5(any consonant other than y, w, l, r, m or n)
      7. strong class 6(Vowel + a single consonant, if the present stem had a or o in late PIE)
      8. strong class 7
        1. strong class 7a(a + i)
        2. strong class 7b(a + u)
        3. strong class 7c(a + l, r, m or n + another consonant (if no other consonant follows, the verb belongs to class 6))
        4. strong class 7d(ē)
        5. strong class 7e(ō)…7Cと同じ
    2. weak verb
  3. 改善案
    1. strong verb
    2. weak verb

strong class 1(Vowel + y/i)

*rīdaną

present tense indicative subjunctive imperative indicative subjunctive
1st singular *ŕita *ŕito *ŕitay ?
2nd singular *ŕicäš *ŕitay *ŕi *ŕitasay *ŕitayäso
3rd singular *ŕicäc *ŕitay *ŕitato *ŕitatay *ŕitayäto
1st dual *ŕita *ŕitayäw
2nd dual *ŕitac *ŕitayäc *ŕitac
1st plural *ŕitama *ŕitayäm *ŕitantay *ŕitayänto
2nd plural *ŕic *ŕitay *ŕic *ŕitantay *ŕitayänto
3rd plural *ŕitanc *ŕitay *ŕitanto *ŕitantay *ŕitayänto
past tense indicative subjunctive
1st singular *ray *ŕäti
2nd singular *ray *ŕäci
3rd singular *ray *ŕäci
1st dual *ŕätu *ŕciw
2nd dual *ŕätäc *ŕcic
1st plural *ŕätäm *ŕäcim
2nd plural *ŕät *ŕäci
3rd plural *ŕät *ŕäci
present past
participles *ŕita *ŕtana

strong class 2a(Vowel + w/u)

*freusaną

present tense indicative subjunctive imperative indicative subjunctive
1st singular *fŕusa *fŕuso *fŕusay ?
2nd singular *fŕušäš *fŕusay *fŕu *fŕusasay *fŕusayso
3rd singular *fŕušäc *fŕusay *fŕusato *fŕusatay *fŕusayto
1st dual *fŕusa *fŕusayäw
2nd dual *fŕusac *fŕusayäc *fŕusac
1st plural *fŕusama *fŕusayäm *fŕusantay *fŕusayänto
2nd plural *fŕuš *fŕusay *fŕwäš *fŕusantay *fŕusayänto
3rd plural *fŕusanc *fŕusay *fŕusanto *fŕusantay *fŕusayänto
past tense indicative subjunctive
1st singular *fro *fräši
2nd singular *fro *fräši
3rd singular *fro *fräši
1st dual *fräsu *fräšiw
2nd dual *fräsäc *frušic
1st plural *fräsäm *fräšim
2nd plural *fräs *fräši
3rd plural *fräs *fräši
present past
participles *fŕäsa *frusana

strong class 2b

*lūkaną

present tense indicative subjunctive imperative indicative subjunctive
1st singular *luka *luko *lukay ?
2nd singular *lutsäš *lukay *lu *lukasay *lukayäso
3rd singular *lutsäc *lukay *lukato *lukatay *lukayäto
1st dual *luka *lukayäw
2nd dual *lukac *lukayäc *lukac
1st plural *lukama *lukayäm *lukantay *lukayänto
2nd plural *luts *lukay *luts *lukantay *lukayänto
3rd plural *lukanc *lukay *lukanto *lukantay *lukayänto
past tense indicative subjunctive
1st singular *lo *lätsi
2nd singular *lo *lätsi
3rd singular *lo *lätsi
1st dual *läkwu *lätsiw
2nd dual *läkwäc *lutsic
1st plural *läkwäm *lätsim
2nd plural *läkw *lätsi
3rd plural *läkw *lätsi
present past
participles *luka *lkana

strong class 3(Vowel + m,n,l,r + another consonant)

*bindaną

present tense indicative subjunctive imperative indicative subjunctive
1st singular *pinta *pinto *pintay ?
2nd singular *pincäš *pintay *pi *pintasay *pintayso
3rd singular *pincäc *pintay *pintato *pintatay *pintayto
1st dual *pinta *pintayäw
2nd dual *pintac *pintayäc *pintac
1st plural *pintama *pintayäm *pintantay *pintayänto
2nd plural *pinc *pintay *pinc *pintantay *pintayänto
3rd plural *pintanc *pintay *pintanto *pintantay *pintayänto
past tense indicative subjunctive
1st singular *pa *pänci
2nd singular *pa *pänci
3rd singular *pa *pänci
1st dual *päntu *pänciw
2nd dual *päntäc *päncic
1st plural *päntäm *päncim
2nd plural *pänt *pänci
3rd plural *pänt *pänci
present past
participles *pinta *päntana

strong class 4(Vowel + l, r, m or n + no other consonant)

*beraną

present tense indicative subjunctive imperative indicative subjunctive
1st singular *pira *piro *piray ?
2nd singular *piŕäš *piray *pir *pirasay *pirayso
3rd singular *piŕäc *piray *pirato *piratay *pirayto
1st dual *pira *pirayäw
2nd dual *pirac *pirayäc *pirac
1st plural *pirama *pirayäm *pirantay *pirayänto
2nd plural *piŕ *piray *piŕ *pirantay *pirayänto
3rd plural *piranc *piray *piranto *pirantay *pirayänto
past tense indicative subjunctive
1st singular *par *pyeŕi
2nd singular *par *pyeŕi
3rd singular *par *pyeŕi
1st dual *pyeru *pyeŕiw
2nd dual *pyeräc *pyeŕic
1st plural *pyeräm *pyeŕim
2nd plural *pyer *pyeŕi
3rd plural *pyer *pyeŕi
present past
participles *pira *purana

strong class 5(any consonant other than y, w, l, r, m or n)

*lesaną

present tense indicative subjunctive imperative indicative subjunctive
1st singular *lyäsa *lyäsaw *lyäsay ?
2nd singular *lyäšäš *lyäsay *lyä *lyäsasay *lyäsayso
3rd singular *lyäšäc *lyäsay *lyäsataw *lyäsatay *lyäsayto
1st dual *lyäsa *lyäsayäw
2nd dual *lyäsac *lyäsayäc *lyäsac
1st plural *lyäsama *lyäsayäm *lyäsantay *lyäsayänto
2nd plural *lyäš *lyäsay *lyäš *lyäsantay *lyäsayänto
3rd plural *lyäsanc *lyäsay *lyäsantaw *lyäsantay *lyäsayänto
past tense indicative subjunctive
1st singular *la *lyeši
2nd singular *la *lyeši
3rd singular *la *lyeši
1st dual *lyesu *lyešiw
2nd dual *lyesäc *lyešic
1st plural *lyesäm *lyešim
2nd plural *lyes *lyeši
3rd plural *lyes *lyeši
present past
participles *lyäsa *lysana

strong class 6(Vowel + a single consonant, if the present stem had a or o in late PIE)

*alaną

present tense indicative subjunctive imperative indicative subjunctive
1st singular *ala *alo *alay ?
2nd singular *alyäš *alay *al *alasay *alayso
3rd singular *alyäc *alay *alato *alatay *alayto
1st dual *ala *alayäw
2nd dual *alac *alayäc *alac
1st plural *alama *alayäm *alantay *alayänto
2nd plural *aly *alay *aly *alantay *alayänto
3rd plural *alanc *alay *alanto *alantay *alayänto
past tense indicative subjunctive
1st singular *al *alyi
2nd singular *al *alyi
3rd singular *al *alyi
1st dual *alu *alyiw
2nd dual *aläc *alyic
1st plural *aläm *alyim
2nd plural *al *alyi
3rd plural *al *alyi
present past
participles *ala *alana

strong class 7(reduplication)

strong class 7a(a + i)

*haitaną

present tense indicative subjunctive imperative indicative subjunctive
1st singular *hayäta *haytaw *haytay ?
2nd singular *haycäš *haytayä *hayä *haytasay *haytayso
3rd singular *haycäc *haytay *haytataw *haytatay *haytayto
1st dual *hayäta *haytayäw
2nd dual *haytacä *haytayäcä *haytacä
1st plural *haytama *haytayäm *haytantay *haytayänto
2nd plural *hayäcä *haytayä *hayäcä *haytantay *haytayänto
3rd plural *haytanc *haytayä *haytantaw *haytantay *haytayänto
past tense indicative subjunctive
1st singular *tsähay *tsähayäci
2nd singular *tsähay *tsähayäci
3rd singular *tsähay *tsähayäci
1st dual *tsähayätu *tsähayäciw
2nd dual *tsähayätäc *tsähayäcic
1st plural *tsähayätäm *tsähayäcim
2nd plural *tsähayät *tsähayäci
3rd plural *tsähayät *tsähayäci
present past
participles *hayäta *haytana

strong class 7b(a + u)

*hlaupaną

present tense indicative subjunctive imperative indicative subjunctive
1st singular *hlopa *hlopo *hlopay ?
2nd singular *hlopiš *hlopay *hlo *hlopasay *hlopayäso
3rd singular *hlopic *hlopay *hlopato *hlopatay *hlopayäto
1st dual *hlopa *hlopayäw
2nd dual *hlopac *hlopayäc *hlopac
1st plural *hlopama *hlopayäm *hlopantay *hlopayänto
2nd plural *hlopi *hlopay *hlopi *hlopantay *hlopayänto
3rd plural *hlopanc *hlopay *hlopanto *hlopantay *hlopayänto
past tense indicative subjunctive
1st singular *tsählo *tsählopi
2nd singular *tsählo *tsählopi
3rd singular *tsählo *tsählopi
1st dual *tsählopu *tsählopiw
2nd dual *tsählopäc *tsählopic
1st plural *tsählopäm *tsählopim
2nd plural *tsählop *tsählopi
3rd plural *tsählop *tsählopi
present past
participles *hlopa *hlopana

strong class 7c(a + l, r, m or n + another consonant (if no other consonant follows, the verb belongs to class 6))

*haldaną

present tense indicative subjunctive imperative indicative subjunctive
1st singular *halta *haltaw *haltay ?
2nd singular *halcäš *haltay *hal *haltasay *haltayso
3rd singular *halcäc *haltay *haltataw *haltatay *haltayto
1st dual *halta *haltayäw
2nd dual *haltac *haltayäc *haltac
1st plural *haltama *haltayäm *haltantay *haltayänto
2nd plural *halc *haltay *halc *haltantay *haltayänto
3rd plural *haltanc *haltay *haltantaw *haltantay *haltayänto
past tense indicative subjunctive
1st singular *tsähal *tsähalci
2nd singular *tsähal *tsähalci
3rd singular *tsähal *tsähalci
1st dual *tsähaltu *tsähalciw
2nd dual *tsähaltäc *tsähalcic
1st plural *tsähaltäm *tsähalcim
2nd plural *tsähalt *tsähalci
3rd plural *tsähalt *tsähalci
present past
participles *halta *haltana

strong class 7d(ē)

*lētaną

present tense indicative subjunctive imperative indicative subjunctive
1st singular *lyeta *lyetaw *lyetay ?
2nd singular *lyecäš *lyetay *lye *lyetasay *lyetayso
3rd singular *lyecäc *lyetay *lyetataw *lyetatay *lyetayto
1st dual *lyeta *lyetayäw
2nd dual *lyetac *lyetayäc *lyetac
1st plural *lyetama *lyetayäm *lyetantay *lyetayänto
2nd plural *lyecä *lyetay *lyec *lyetantay *lyetayänto
3rd plural *lyetanc *lyetay *lyetantaw *lyetantay *lyetayänto
past tense indicative subjunctive
1st singular *lyäla *lyälci
2nd singular *lyäla *lyälci
3rd singular *lyäla *lyälci
1st dual *lyältu *lyälciw
2nd dual *lyältäc *lyälcic
1st plural *lyältäm *lyälcim
2nd plural *lyält *lyälci
3rd plural *lyält *lyälci
present past
participles *lyeta *lyetana

strong class 7e(ō)

*blōtaną

present tense indicative subjunctive imperative indicative subjunctive
1st singular *plata *plato *platay ?
2nd singular *placäš *platay *pla *platasay *platayäso
3rd singular *placäc *platay *platato *platatay *platayäto
1st dual *plata *platayäw
2nd dual *platac *platayäc *platac
1st plural *platama *platayäm *platantay *platayänto
2nd plural *plac *platay *plac *platantay *platayänto
3rd plural *platanc *platay *platanto *platantay *platayänto
past tense indicative subjunctive
1st singular *pipla *piplaci
2nd singular *pipla *piplaci
3rd singular *pipla *piplaci
1st dual *piplatu *piplaciw
2nd dual *piplatäc *piplacic
1st plural *piplatäm *piplacim
2nd plural *piplat *piplaci
3rd plural *piplat *piplaci
present past
participles *plata *platana

weak class1

weak class1(i)(no suffix in the present, and no suffix in the past)

*bringaną

present tense indicative subjunctive imperative indicative subjunctive
1st singular *pŕəmka *pŕəmkaw *pŕəmkay ?
2nd singular *pŕəmtsəš *pŕəmkay *pŕə *pŕəmkasay *pŕəmkayso
3rd singular *pŕəmtsəc *pŕəmkay *pŕəmkataw *pŕəmkatay *pŕəmkayto
1st dual *pŕəmka *pŕəmkayəw
2nd dual *pŕəmkac *pŕəmkayəc *pŕəmkac
1st plural *pŕəmkama *pŕəmkayəm *pŕəmkantay *pŕəmkayənto
2nd plural *pŕəmts *pŕəmkay *pŕəmts *pŕəmkantay *pŕəmkayənto
3rd plural *pŕəmkanc *pŕəmkay *pŕəmkantaw *pŕəmkantay *pŕəmkayənto
past tense indicative subjunctive
1st singular *pranhta *pranhceci
2nd singular *pranhce *pranhceci
3rd singular *pranhce *pranhceci
1st dual *pranhcetu *pranhceciw
2nd dual *pranhcetəc *pranhcecic
1st plural *pranhcetəm *pranhcecim
2nd plural *pranhcet *pranhceci
3rd plural *pranhcet *pranhceci
present past
participles *pŕəmka *pranhta

weak class1(ii)( the suffix -j- in the present and no suffix in the past)

*bugjaną

present tense indicative subjunctive imperative indicative subjunctive
1st singular *pätsa *ptsaw *ptsay ?
2nd singular *ptsäš *ptsay *päts *ptsasay *ptsayso
3rd singular *ptsäts *ptsay *ptsaþaw *ptsaþay *ptsayþo
1st dual *pätsa *ptsayäw
2nd dual *ptsats *ptsayäts *ptsats
1st plural *ptsama *ptsayäm *ptsanþay *ptsayänþo
2nd plural *päts *ptsay *päts *ptsanþay *ptsayänþo
3rd plural *ptsants *ptsay *ptsanþaw *ptsanþay *ptsayänþo
past tense indicative subjunctive
1st singular *pähta *pähceci
2nd singular *pähc *pähceci
3rd singular *pähc *pähceci
1st dual *pähcetu *pähceciw
2nd dual *pähcetäc *pähcecic
1st plural *pähcetäm *pähcecim
2nd plural *pähcet *pähceci
3rd plural *pähcet *pähceci
present past
participles *pätsa *ptsäta

weak class1(iii)(the suffix -j- in the present and -i- in the past)

*gramjaną

present tense indicative subjunctive imperative indicative subjunctive
1st singular *kramya *kramyaw *kramyay ?
2nd singular *kramiš *kramyay *krami *kramyasay *kramyayəso
3rd singular *kramits *kramyay *kramyaþaw *kramyaþay *kramyayəþo
1st dual *kramya *kramyayəw
2nd dual *kramyats *kramyayəts *kramyats
1st plural *kramyama *kramyayəm *kramyanþay *kramyayənþo
2nd plural *krami *kramyay *krami *kramyanþay *kramyayənþo
3rd plural *kramyants *kramyay *kramyanþaw *kramyanþay *kramyayənþo
past tense indicative subjunctive
1st singular *kramita *kramiceci
2nd singular *kramice *kramiceci
3rd singular *kramice *kramiceci
1st dual *kramicetu *kramiceciw
2nd dual *kramicetəc *kramicecic
1st plural *kramicetəm *kramicecim
2nd plural *kramicet *kramiceci
3rd plural *kramicet *kramiceci
present past
participles *kramya *kramita

weak class2(with a suffix -ō-)

*laþōną

present tense indicative subjunctive imperative indicative subjunctive
1st singular *laþa *laþa *laþayə ?
2nd singular *laþaš *laþa *laþa *laþasay *laþaso
3rd singular *laþats *laþa *laþaþo *laþaþay *laþaþo
1st dual *laþa *laþaw
2nd dual *laþats *laþats *laþats
1st plural *laþama *laþam *laþanþay *laþanþo
2nd plural *laþa *laþa *laþa *laþanþay *laþanþo
3rd plural *laþantsə *laþa *laþanþo *laþanþay *laþanþo
past tense indicative subjunctive
1st singular *laþata *laþaceci
2nd singular *laþace *laþaceci
3rd singular *laþace *laþaceci
1st dual *laþacetu *laþaceciw
2nd dual *laþacetəc *laþacecic
1st plural *laþacetəm *laþacecim
2nd plural *laþacet *laþaceci
3rd plural *laþacet *laþaceci
present past
participles *laþa *laþata

weak class3 j-present(*-ja- in the past, and no suffix in the past)

*habjaną

present tense indicative subjunctive imperative indicative subjunctive
1st singular *hapya *hapyo
2nd singular *hapayəš *hapyay *hapay
3rd singular *hapayəts *hapyay *hapyaþo
1st dual *hapya *hapyayəw
2nd dual *hapyats *hapyayəts *hapyats
1st plural *hapyama *hapyayəm
2nd plural *hapay *hapyay *hapay
3rd plural *hapyants *hapyay *hapyanþo
past tense indicative subjunctive
1st singular *hapta *hapceci
2nd singular *hapce *hapceci
3rd singular *hapce *hapceci
1st dual *hapcetu *hapceciw
2nd dual *hapcetəc *hapcecic
1st plural *hapcetəm *hapcecim
2nd plural *hapcet *hapceci
3rd plural *hapcet *hapceci
present past
participles *hapya *hapta

まとめ

strong verb

  • part 1:the present
  • part 2:past indicative singular
  • part 3:remaining past
  • part 4:past participle
現在 能動態直説法 能動態条件法 命令法 受動態直説法 受動態条件法
1.sg. -Ca -Co -Cay
2.sg. -Cʲäš -Cay -∅ -Casay -Cayäso
3.sg. -Cʲäc -Cay -Cato -Casay -Cayäto
1.du. -Ca -Cayäw
2.du. -Cac -Cayäc -Cac
1.pl. -Cama -Cayäm -Cantay -Cayänto
2.pl. -Cʲ -Cay -Cantay -Cayänto
3.pl. -Canc -Cay -Canto -Cantay -Cayänto
過去 能動態直説法 能動態条件法
1.sg. -∅ -Cʲi
2.sg. -∅ -Cʲi
3.sg. -∅ -Cʲi
1.du. -Cu -Cʲiw
2.du. -Cäc -Cʲic
1.pl. -Cäm -Cʲim
2.pl. -C -Cʲi
3.pl. -C -Cʲi
現在 過去
分詞 -Ca -Cana

C=r, lの場合は-∅となっている部分(2.sg.命令、sg.能動態直説法過去)は-C

strong class 1(Vowel + y/i)

  • part 1:C₁ʲiC₂
  • part 2:C₁ay
  • part 3:C₁ʲäC₂
  • part 4:C₁ʲC₂

strong class 2a(Vowel + w/u)

  • part 1:C₁⁽ʲ'ʷ⁾uC₂
  • part 2:C₁o
    • *awə > o
  • part 3:C₁⁽ʷ⁾äC₂
  • part 4:C₁⁽ʷ⁾C₂

語尾は同じ

strong class 2b

strong class 2aと違いはない

strong class 3(Vowel + m,n,l,r + another consonant)

  • part 1:C₁VC₂C₃
  • part 2:C₁a
  • part 3:C₁⁽ʷ⁾äC₂C₃
  • part 4:C₁⁽ʷ⁾äC₂C₃

strong class 4(Vowel + l, r, m or n + no other consonant)

  • part 1:C₁⁽ʲ'ʷ⁾äC₂
  • part 2:C₁a
  • part 3:C₁⁽ʲ'ʷ⁾VC₂
  • part 4:C₁uC₂

strong class 5(any consonant other than y, w, l, r, m or n)

  • part 1:C₁⁽ʲ'ʷ⁾äC₂
  • part 2:C₁a
  • part 3:C₁⁽ʲ'ʷ⁾VC₂
  • part 4:C₁C₂

strong class 6(Vowel + a single consonant, if the present stem had a or o in late PIE)

  • part 1:C₁aC₂
  • part 2:C₁a
  • part 3:C₁aC₂
  • part 4:C₁aC₂

strong class 7

strong class 7a(a + i)

  • part 1:C₁ayäC₂
  • part 2:C₁ʲäC₁a
  • part 3:C₁ʲäC₁aC₂
  • part 4:C₁ayC₂

strong class 7b(a + u)

  • part 1:C₁oC₂
  • part 2:C₁ʲäC₁o
  • part 3:C₁ʲäC₁oC₂
  • part 4:C₁oC₂

strong class 7c(a + l, r, m or n + another consonant (if no other consonant follows, the verb belongs to class 6))

  • part 1:C₁aC₂
  • part 2:C₁ʲäC₁a
  • part 3:C₁ʲäC₁aC₂
  • part 4:C₁aC₂

strong class 7d(ē)

  • part 1:C₁ʲeC₂
  • part 2:C₁ʲäC₁a
  • part 3:C₁ʲäC₁C₂
  • part 4:C₁ʲeC₂

strong class 7e(ō)…7Cと同じ

  • part 1:C₁aC₂
  • part 2:C₁ʲäC₁a
  • part 3:C₁ʲäC₁C₂
  • part 4:C₁aC₂

weak verb

面倒なので全部一種類にまとめる

  • 現在語幹:そのまま
  • 過去語幹:終子音は弱化(k > hなど)、母音は強化(ʲä > a)
現在 能動態直説法 能動態条件法 命令法 受動態直説法 受動態条件法
1.sg. -Ca -Co -Cay
2.sg. -Cʲäš -Cay -∅ -Casay -Cayäso
3.sg. -Cʲäc -Cay -Cato -Casay -Cayäto
1.du. -Ca -Cayäw
2.du. -Cac -Cayäc -Cac
1.pl. -Cama -Cayäm -Cantay -Cayänto
2.pl. -Cʲ -Cay -Cantay -Cayänto
3.pl. -Canc -Cay -Canto -Cantay -Cayänto
過去 能動態直説法 能動態条件法
1.sg. -Cta -Cceci
2.sg. -Cce -Cceci
3.sg. -Cce -Cceci
1.du. -Ccetu -Cceciw
2.du. -Ccetäc -Ccecic
1.pl. -Ccetäm -Ccecim
2.pl. -Ccet -Cceci
3.pl. -Ccet -Cceci
現在 過去
分詞 -Ca -Cca

改善案

strong verb

本来の動詞
present stem

現在 能動態直説法 能動態条件法 受動態直説法 受動態条件法
1.sg. -a -o -ay -ay
2.sg. -ʲäš -ay-s -asay-äso -ay-äso
3.sg. -ʲäc -ay-t -asay-äto -ay-äto
1.du. -aw -ay-äw -- --
2.du. -ac -ay-äc -- --
1.pl. -ama -ay-äm -antay-ämo -ayänt-ämo
2.pl. -ay -antay-äso -ayänt-äso
3.pl. -anc -ay-anc -antay-äto -ayänto

imperative stem(present stem with prefix pä-)

命令法
1.sg.
2.sg. -∅
3.sg. -Cato
1.du.
2.du. -Cac
1.pl.
2.pl.
3.pl. -Canto

past stem(単数直説法過去のC'は弱化した語幹末子音)

過去 能動態直説法 能動態条件法
1.sg. -C' -Cʲi
2.sg. -C'-s -Cʲi-s
3.sg. -C'-t -Cʲi-t
1.du. -C-ʷu -Cʲiw
2.du. -C-ʷäc -Cʲic
1.pl. -C-ʷäm -Cʲim
2.pl. -C-ʷ -Cʲi
3.pl. -C-ʷänc -Cʲi-nc

分詞
現在分詞:[現在語幹]-a(一人称単数直説法現在と同じ)
過去分詞:[過去分詞語幹]-ana

こうすればだいぶ膠着語っぽいはず

現在語幹 過去語幹a 過去語幹b 過去分詞語幹
strong class1 C₁ʲiC₂ C₁ayC₂' C₁ʲäC₂ C₁ʲC₂
strong class2-e C₁ʲuC₂ C₁oC₂' C₁äC₂ C₁ʷC₂
strong class2-u C₁ʷuC₂ C₁oC₂' C₁äC₂ C₁ʷC₂
strong class3 C₁VC₂C₃ C₁aC₂C₃' C₁äC₂C₃ C₁äC₂C₃
strong class4 C₁ʲäC₂ C₁aC₂' C₁ʲVC₂ C₁ʷC₂
strong class5 C₁ʲäC₂ C₁aC₂' C₁ʲeC₂ C₁ʲC₂
strong class6 C₁aC₂ C₁aC₂' C₁aC₂ C₁aC₂
strong class7a C₁ayäC₂ C₁ʲäC₁aC₂' C₁ʲäC₁aC₂ C₁ayC₂
strong class7b C₁oC₂ C₁ʲäC₁oC₂' C₁ʲäC₁oC₂ C₁oC₂
strong class7c C₁aC₂ C₁ʲäC₁aC₂' C₁ʲäC₁aC₂ C₁aC₂
strong class7d C₁ʲeC₂ C₁ʲäC₁aC₂' C₁ʲäC₁C₂ C₁ʲeC₂

class6とclass7c以外は現在形で判別可能

weak verb

現在時制:strong verbと同じ
過去時制:終子音は弱化(k > hなど)、母音は強化(ʲä > a)したうえで以下の語尾が付く

過去 能動態直説法 能動態条件法
1.sg. -ta -ceci
2.sg. -ces -cecis
3.sg. -cet -cecit
1.du. -cetu -ceciw
2.du. -cetäc -cecic
1.pl. -cetäm -cecim
2.pl. -cet -ceci
3.pl. -cetanc -cecinc

分詞
現在分詞:[現在語幹]-a(一人称単数直説法現在と同じ)
過去分詞:[過去語幹]-cna

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Pub: 21 Sep 2022 02:32 UTC
Edit: 23 Sep 2022 01:50 UTC
Views: 174