ヒッタイト系の人工言語をでっちあげたいね

ヒッタイト語にSAE(標準ヨーロッパ語)的な要素を入れ込んでいく

ヒッタイト語

まずは普通のヒッタイト語

子音

破裂音/鼻音/流音/摩擦音にfortis/lenisの対立がある。一方で有声/無声の対立は(どうやら)ない。

Labial(+P-O) Dental(-P-O) Palatal(-P+O) Dorsal. plain(+P+O-E) Dorsal, labialized(+P+O+E)
Static stops(–L–S–D–C) p/pp/m/mm t/tt/n/nn k/kk ku/kku
Strident fricative(–L+S-D+C) (s/ss) š/šš ḫ/ḫḫ ḫu/ḫḫu
Strident affricate(–L+S+D+C) z
Constrictive glides(+L-S+D+C) y w
Lateral liquids(+L+S–D–C) l/ll
Static trills(+L+S–D+C) r/rr

喉音

https://www.ling.upenn.edu/~rnoyer/courses/51/FromPIEtoHittite.pdf

h₁₂₃

PIE Vh₁₂₃sV > H VššV
[PIE
h₂éh₁s-h₂ > H ḫāšša-š ‘hearth’, L āra]
PIE VRh₁₂₃V > H VRiRiV (with e > H a before h₂, h₃)
[PIE h₂erh₂₃- ‘to dissolve, separate’ >H harrai ‘to crush, batter’, cf. Gk ἀρόω, L arō, Li àrti ‘plow’,
[PIE
melh₂- ‘to crush, grind’ > H malli, mallanzi ‘to grind’,
PIE *h₂u,elh₁- >H ḫulle- ‘to fight’, cf. L ualeō ‘to be powerful’]

h₂

PIE Vh₂iV> H VyV (VwV if one vowel is u)
[PIE teh₂-ie-ti ‘steals’ > H tayezzi ]
PIE
Ch₂ > H C (C = stop)
[PIE pth₂-óno-s > H paltāna-š ‘shoulder’,
PIE
u,éth₂-r̥ ‘word’ > H uttar]
PIE *Th₂C > H TC (C = stop)

h₃

PIE *#h₃i > H y

Elsewhere:

PIE h₁ > Ø
[PIE
h₁esh₂-os- ‘master’ > H išḫāš, L erus,
PIE torh₁-mo- ‘nail’ > H tarm-aš ‘nail, pin’, τόρµος ‘nail hole’,
PIE
sph₁-ói- > H išpai- ‘to be satisfied’]
PIE h₂ > H ḫ
PIE
h₃ > H ḫ word-initially, otherwise > H Ø
[PIE h₃erbʰ- ‘to change allegiance or status’ > H ḫarp- (ḫarb-),
PIE
h₃e-h₃nóh₃-ei ‘to blame, judge’ > H ḫanna-,
PIE *séuh₃u- ‘full’ > H šūw-]

めんどくさいな…

PIE h₁ > Ø
PIE
h₂ > ḫ/^V_V, ḫḫ/V_V
PIE *h₃ > ḫ/#, > Ø/^#
くらいでいいか

母音

-G-W-T-N+L-S-D/-G-W+T-N+L-S-D
a/ā:-C±P+O±E±R
e/ē:-C-P-O±E±R
i/ī:+C-P-O±E±R
ú/ú̄:-C+P-O±E±R
u/ū:+C+P-O±E±R

Standard Average European

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standard_Average_European
https://web.archive.org/web/20221121061628/https://www.joerg-rhiemeier.de/Conlang/sae.html

音韻論

音韻部分はあまり"SAE特有"という感じではない

  • absence of phonemic opposition velar/uvular
  • phonemic voicing oppositions (/p/ vs. /b/ etc.)
  • initial consonant clusters of the type "stop+sonorant" allowed
  • only pulmonic consonants
  • at least three degrees of vowel height (minimum inventory i e a o u)
  • lack of lateral fricatives and affricates
Labial(+P-O) Dental(-P-O) Palatal(-P+O) Dorsal. plain(+P+O-E) Dorsal, labialized(+P+O+E)
Static stops(–L–S–D–C) p/b/m/m t/d/n k/g ku/gu
Strident fricative(–L+S-D+C) f/v (s/z) š/ž hh/h hhu/hu
Strident affricate(–L+S+D+C) z
Constrictive glides(+L-S+D+C) y w
Lateral liquids(+L+S–D–C) l
Static trills(+L+S–D+C) r
Front(-P-E) Center(+P-E) Back(+P+E)
High(+C-O) i u
Mid(-C-O) e o
Low(-C+O) a

くらいがちょうどよさそう?

形態論

SAE共通

  • predominantly suffixing morphology;
  • moderately synthetic fusional morphological typology;

名詞

SAE特有

  • dative external possessors (e.g. German Die Mutter wusch dem Kind die Haare "The mother washed the child's hair" (lit. "The mother washed the hair to the child"), Portuguese Ela lavou-lhe o cabelo "She washed his hair" (lit. "She washed him the hair")

SAE共通

  • lack of distinction between alienable (e.g. legal property) and inalienable (e.g. body part) possession;
  • nominative–accusative morphosyntactic alignment.

代名詞

SAE特有

  • postnominal relative clauses with inflected relative pronouns that signal the role of the head in the clause (e.g. English who vs. whose)
  • a preponderance of generalizing predicates to encode experiencers, i.e. experiencers appear as surface subjects in nominative case (e.g. English I like music instead of Music pleases me, though compare Italian Mi piace la musica and German Musik gefällt mir, which are of the form "Music pleases me")
  • negative indefinite pronouns without verbal negation (e.g. German Niemand kommt "nobody comes" vs. Modern Greek κανένας δεν ερχεται "nobody (lit. not) comes")
  • differentiation between intensifiers and reflexive pronouns (e.g. German intensifier selbst vs. reflexive sich)

SAE共通

  • For conjunctions of noun phrases, SAE languages prefer "A and-B" instead of "A-and B", "A-and B-and", "A B-and", or the comitative "with";
  • syncretism of instrumental and comitative cases (e.g. English I cut my food with a knife when eating with my friends);
  • lack of distinction between inclusive and exclusive first-person plural pronouns ("we and you" vs. "we and not you");

冠詞

SAE特有

  • definite and indefinite articles (e.g. English the vs. a)

動詞

SAE特有

  • a periphrastic perfect formed with 'have' plus a passive participle (e.g. English I have said);
  • a passive construction formed with a passive participle plus an intransitive copula-like verb (e.g. English I am known);
  • a prominence of anticausative verbs in inchoative-causative pairs (e.g. Russian inchoative anticausative izmenit’-sja 'to change (intransitive)' is derived from causative izmenit’ 'to change [something], make [something] change')

SAE共通

  • only one converb (e.g. English -ing form, Romance gerunds), preference for finite rather than non-finite subordinate clauses;
  • tendency towards replacement of past tense by the perfect.

形容詞

SAE特有

  • particle comparatives in comparisons of inequality (e.g. English bigger than an elephant)
  • equative constructions (i.e. constructions for comparison of equality) based on adverbial relative-clause structures, e.g. Occitan tan grand coma un elefant, Russian tak že X kak Y, where coma/kak (historically coming from the adverbial interrogative pronoun "how") are "adverbial relative pronouns" according to Haspelmath

SAE共通

  • comparative inflection of adjectives (e.g. English bigger);

統語

SAE特有

  • subject person affixes as strict agreement markers, i.e. the verb is inflected for person and number of the subject, but subject pronouns may not be dropped even when this would be unambiguous (only in some languages, such as German and French)

SAE共通

  • topic and focus expressed by intonation and word order;
  • word order subject–verb–object;
  • specific construction for negative coordination (e.g. English neither...nor...);

語彙

SAE共通

  • suppletivism in second vs. two;
  • lack of productive usage of reduplication;
  • phasal adverbs (e.g. English already, still, not yet);

単語の選択は?

そこそこの数の語彙集を固有語の辞書にして、ここに無い語はでっちあげる。
https://www.assyrianlanguages.org/hittite/en_lexique_hittite.htm

Haspelmathはフランス語とドイツ語がStandard Average Europeanの核だって言ってるし、ううーん、独仏となんかをタネにして中原メソッドででっちあげればいい。やっぱギリシャ語ですかね

ヒッタイト語 > (今回の言語)

母音間のlenis consonantを有声化してfortis/lenisの対立をvoiceless/voicedに変えればある程度通りそうな気がする
あとはまあ正書法をたとえばロマンシュ語風にするとかでごまかせるかな……なんなら一旦組んでから長母音を二重母音にするなりウムラウトを入れるなりすればいい

お試し

数詞

ヒッタイト語でわかってる数字は1(šiyaš), 2(duš), 3(trēš), 4(mēwaš), 7(šiptaš)
残りを独仏希からひねり出す https://rentry.co/hh7k3

1 šiyaš schias
2 duš dus
3 três três
4 mêvas mêvas
5 penfas penfas
6 zesis zesis
7 siptas schiptas
8 ahtas ahtas
9 nöyen nöien
10 detes detes
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Pub: 03 Jun 2023 16:38 UTC
Views: 105