Proto-SamoyedicとYassiの音変化の比較

子音

Proto Samoyedic(https://www.frathwiki.com/Proto-Samoyedic より)

  • Proto-Uralic to Proto-East Uralic
    • *ðʲ → *lʲ (further shared with Permic; possibly a pseudo-sound change, the case for separate PU *lʲ is weak, and this may point to *ðʲ being [lʲ])
    • *s, *š → *θ (= [ɬ], per Khanty?)
    • *sʲ → *s (perhaps areal, see next section)
    • *tk → *tt
      • *kt is most regularly reflected as Ms *-kt, Kh *-ɣət; exceptions *śäkti- → Kh *saat, *kêktä → *ki/äät
      • *čk reflected as *šk in Ms.
  • Bottom-level consonant developments
    • *ɬ > *t (counterbleeds the previous two — *mt *ŋt remain)
    • *d₁ > *r (could be dated about anywhere)
    • *ć > *s (probably via *ć, so another argument for independant depalatalization; or original *ć might not have existed at all)
      • or might be post-PSmy, in light of Selkup *ns > *ś, Tundra Nenets *ns > nc
  • Palatalization of *l
    • As noted above, *d₂ > *ʎ (*lʲ?) probably dates to already East Uralic
    • *l > *ʎ / C, #, _i(C)#
      • Retained initially before *ï, *ë (*lëmpə *lëmtə *lëpa *lëpsə; PU *lowə (*lëwə?) > *lë)
      • Otherwise *l- > *j- is clear
      • *-lw- > *-jw- is clear
      • *-lt-, *-alm- unchanged (*kulta-, *kalma; both potential derivativs!)
      • *-ilm- > *-ə̈jm-, *-lkə > *-j and *-lə > *-j may be due to coda position
  • Misc.
    • *ʎ > *j (counterbleeds *a > *a, feeds the next two - supposedly retained in some Selkup dialects?)
    • *j > ∅ / åə_ (*kalə- *ńalə- *walə- > *kåə- *ńåə- *åə-)
    • possibly: *eɣ > *i (*mi- *pi- *ti-mä; cf *nêjə > *ne)
    • ? *w > *m / ʎ_ (*käd₂wa only - apparently South Smy. only)
    • *ɣ > ∅; or *k > ∅ / C (except *-ŋk-) (counterbleeds *ə > ∅, cf. next)
    • *w > ∅ / coda (counterbleeds *ə > ∅; *jäwjə, *täwd₁ə, etc. Remains #täwəw > *tiwə, also in *-jw- of either origin (suggesting interm. *ɣ?))

*p

Yassi:
*p > p/#_
*p > b/V_V
PS:
*p > *p

*t

Yassi:
*t > t/#_
*t > l/V_V
PS:
*t > *t

*k

Yassi:
*k > c/#V[+front]
*k > k/#_V[-front]
*k > s/V_V[+front]
*k > g/V_V[-front]
*k > y/
#
PS:
*k > *k

*m

Yassi, PS:
*m > m

*n

Yassi, PS:
*n > n

Yassi:
*ń > p
PS:
*ń > *ń

Yassi:
*ŋ > h/V_
*ŋ > n/C_
PS:
*ŋ > *ŋ

Yassi:
*č > c
PS:
*č > *č

Yassi:?
PS:
*ć > *s

Yassi:
*δ > ∅
PS:
*δ > r

*δ'

Yassi:
*δ' > ly
PS:
*δ' > *λ

*s

Yassi:
*s > ∅
PS:
*s > *t

Yassi:
*ś > s
PS:
*ś > *s

Yassi:
*š > š
PS:
*š > *t

*l

Yassi:
*l > r
PS:
*l > *ʎ / C, #, i(C)#
*l > *l /
{*ï, *ë}

母音

Proto Samoyedic(https://www.frathwiki.com/Proto-Samoyedic より)

  • Bottom-level vowel developments
    • A possible *e/*ê contrast is lost (will write *e)
    • *ü > *i (no evidence on association to *i > *ə̈; stem type unclear in *ül- > *i, plus OU also points to *i)
  • Vowel lowering
    • *o > *å
      • except when V2 lost (*kokə- *kosə- *lomə *ńoxə- *porə- *śojə- *śowə *tolə- *toxə > *ko- *kot- *jom *ńo- *por- *so- *so- *toj- *to)
    • *u > *ə / _C(C)a
      • others: *suŋə > *təŋ, *kurkə/*karka > *kərə, *kulkə- > *kəj-
    • *i > *ə̈ / C(C)ä (*ipsä- > *ə̈ptä-, *itä- > ə̈tä-, śilmä > *sə̈jmä; or _j #, cf. *imə- > *əm-, #pid₂mətä > *pəjmətä)
    • "*ə *ə̈" were probably /ʊ ɪ/ prior to their merger
    • possibly: *ï > *[ɨ] / j_, further > *ə / _Ca (*jëka > jəka, *jëka- > *jəkə-; *jïntə may be secondary, plus *j lost in Core)
  • a
    • *a > *a [ɑ]? / before a coda palatal (sometimes elsewhere); is fed by palatalization of *l, counterfed by *å-lowering
    • *a > *a / between two stops (*čača- "be born", *čača- "to go", *pata *taka)
    • *a > *å [ɒ] / elsewhere
  • Unstress'd (generally, final) vowels
    • *a > *ä / after front vowels or a lateral (sometimes elsewhere)
      • *kala *pala *kad₂a- *pud₂a- > *kålä *pålä *kåjä- *pəjä (…)
      • but not in *mud₂a *su(w)d₂a > *məjå *səjå¹
    • *a > *ə / sometimes (*jupta- *kod₂ka *konta *kuma *muja- *puna- *śala *śod₂a *tora…) (check!)
    • *a > *å [ɒ] / elsewhere
  • Misc.
    • Word-finally *ə > ∅ / VC_# (fed by vocalization of *x *ʎ, counterfed by ɣ/w-loss, exceptions *jurə, *śüdₓə)
    • possibly: *eɣ > *i (*mi- *pi- *ti-mä; cf *nêjə > *ne)
    • ? *äw > *ü / _C (*käwd₁ə, *jäwjə - but not in *täwd₁ə)

*a

Yassi:
*a > a
Proto Samoyedic:
*a > *a/P_P, _Pʲ
*a > *å [ɒ] / elsewhere

Yassi:
*ä > e/ in open syllabre
*ä > ā/ in close syllabre
Proto Samoyedic:
*ä > *ä

*e

Yassi:
*e > a(Indo-Iranic vowel marge)
PS:
*e > *e

*i

Yassi:
*i > ə/ in open syllabre
*i > i/ in close syllabre
PS:
*i > *ə̈ / _C(C)ä
*i > *i /elsewhere

Yassi:
*ï > a/ in open syllabre
*ï > ā/ in close syllabre
PS:
*ï > *ï

*o

Yassi:
*o > a(Indo-Iranic vowel marge)
PS:
*o > *o/ when V2 lost
*o > *å/elsewhere

*u

Yassi:
*u > ə/_^wV
*u > a/_wV
*u > u/ in close syllabre
PS:
*u > *ə / _C(C)a
*u > *u/elsewhere

Yassi
*ü > *i, and
*i > ə/ in open syllabre
*i > i/ in close syllabre
PS:
*ü > *i, and
*i > *ə̈ / _C(C)ä
*i > *i /elsewhere

Edit
Pub: 01 May 2022 07:52 UTC
Edit: 04 Jun 2022 12:47 UTC
Views: 128