偽ピクト語(pseudo-Pictish)

「アトランティック・セム語」仮説にかこつけてセム語っぽいやつが作れるといいね、という試み

参照言語

Proto-Semitic

文法はProto-Semiticからほぼそのまま引っ張ればよさそう
語彙はwiktionaryの分だけ
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Appendix:Proto-Semitic_stems

子音

(-G-W-T-N/-G+W-T-N/-G-W+T-N/-G-W-T+N)

Labial(+P-O) Dental(-P-O) Palatal(-P+O) Dorsal(+P+O)
Static stops(–L–S–D–C) b/p/(p')/m d/t/t'/n g/k/k'
Mellow fricative/affricate(–L–S±D+C) ḏ/ṯ/ṯ̣ ǵ/ḫ/(ḫ')
Lateral fricative/affricate(–L+S±D–C) /ś/ṣ́
Strident fricative/affricate(–L+S±D+C) z/s/ṣ /š/
Lateral liquids(+L+S–D–C) l//
Static trills(+L+S–D+C) r//

"empharic"系列はとりあえず+Tに押し込んだけど+Eでいいらしい

半子音

Constrictive glides(-G-W-T-N+L-S+D+C±P±O)
w:+E-R
y:-E+R
Loose glides(-T-N+L-S+D-C±P±O±E±R)
ḥ:+G+W
h:-G+W
':+G-W

母音

-G-W-T-N+L-S-D±C/-G-W+T-N+L-S-D±C
a/ā:±P+O±E±R
i/ī:-P-O±E±R
u/ū:+P-O±E±R

まとめ

[b]$gwtnlsdcPo__
[p]$gWtnlsdcPoe_
[p']$gwTnlsdcPoE_
[m]$gwtNlsdcPo__
[d]$gwtnlsdcpo__
[t]$gWtnlsdcpoe_
[t']$gwTnlsdcpoE_
[n]$gwtNlsdcpo__
[g]$gwtnlsdcPO__
[k]$gWtnlsdcPOe_
[k']$gwTnlsdcPOE_
[ḏ]$gwtnls_Cpo__
[ṯ]$gWtnls_Cpoe_
[ṯ̣]$gwTnls_CpoE_
[ǵ]$gwtnls_CPO__
[ḫ]$gWtnls_CPOe_
[ś]$gWtnlS_cpoe_
[ṣ́]$gwTnlS_cpoE_
[z]$gwtnlS_Cpo__
[s]$gWtnlS_Cpoe_
[ṣ]$gwTnlS_CpoE_
[š]$gWtnlS_CpOe_
[l]$gwtnLSdcpoe_
[r]$gwtnLSdCpoe_
[w]$gwtnLsDC__Er
[y]$gwtnLsDC__eR
[ḥ]$GWtnLsDc____
[h]$gWtnLsDc____
[']$GwTnLsDc__E_
[a]$gwtnLsd__O__
[ā]$gwTnLsd__O__
[i]$gwtnLsd_po__
[ī]$gwTnLsd_po__
[u]$gwtnLsd_Po__
[ū]$gwTnLsd_Po__

[b] [p] [p'] [m] [d] [t] [t'] [n] [g] [k] [k'] [ḏ] [ṯ] [ṯ̣] [ǵ] [ḫ] [ś] [ṣ́] [z] [s] [ṣ] [š] [l] [r] [w] [y] [ḥ] [h] ['] [a] [ā] [i] [ī] [u] [ū]
G - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + - + - - - - - -
W - + - - - + - - - + - - + - - + + - - + - + - - - - + + - - - - - - -
T - - + - - - + - - - + - - + - - - + - - + - - - - - - - + - + - + - +
N - - - + - - - + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
L - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + + + + + + + + + + + + +
S - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + + + + + + + + - - - - - - - - - - -
D - - - - - - - - - - - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - - + + + + + - - - - - -
C - - - - - - - - - - - + + + + + - - + + + + - + + + - - - 0 0 0 0 0 0
P + + + + - - - - + + + - - - + + - - - - - - - - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - - + +
O - - - - - - - - + + + - - - + + - - - - - + - - 0 0 0 0 0 + + - - - -
E 0 - + 0 0 - + 0 0 - + 0 - + 0 - - + 0 - + - - - + - 0 0 + 0 0 0 0 0 0
R 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - + 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Proto-Celtic

子音

(-G-W-T-N/-G+W-T-N/-G-W-T+N)

Labial(+P-O) Dental(-P-O) Palatal(-P+O) Dorsal. plain(+P+O-E) Dorsal, labialized(+P+O+E)
Static stops(–L–S–D–C) b//m d/t/n g/k/ ɡʷ/kʷ/
Mellow fricative(–L–S-D+C) /ɸ/ /x/
Strident fricative(–L+S-D+C) /s/
Lateral liquids(+L+S–D–C) l//
Static trills(+L+S–D+C) r//

半子音

Constrictive glides(-G-W-T-N+L-S+D+C±P±O)
w:+E-R
j:-E+R

母音

-G-W-T-N+L-S-D/-G-W+T-N+L-S-D
a/ā:-C±P+O±E±R
e/ē:-C-P-O±E±R
i/ī:+C-P-O±E±R
o/:-C+P-O±E±R
u/ū:+C+P-O±E±R

まとめ

[b]$gwtnlsdcPo__
[m]$gwtNlsdcPo__
[d]$gwtnlsdcpo__
[t]$gWtnlsdcpoe_
[n]$gwtNlsdcpo__
[g]$gwtnlsdcPOe_
[k]$gWtnlsdcPOe_
[gʷ]$gwtnlsdcPOE_
[kʷ]$gWtnlsdcPOE_
[ɸ]$gWtnlsdCPo__
[x]$gWtnlsdCPOe_
[s]$gWtnlSdCpo__
[l]$gwtnLSdcpoe_
[r]$gwtnLSdCpoe_
[w]$gwtnLsDC__Er
[j]$gwtnLsDC__eR
[a]$gwtnLsdc_O__
[ā]$gwTnLsdc_O__
[e]$gwtnLsdcpo__
[ē]$gwTnLsdcpo__
[i]$gwtnLsdCpo__
[ī]$gwTnLsdCpo__
[o]$gwtnLsdcPo__
[u]$gwtnLsdCPo__
[ū]$gwTnLsdCPo__

[b] [m] [d] [t] [n] [g] [k] [gʷ] [kʷ] [ɸ] [x] [s] [l] [r] [w] [j] [a] [ā] [e] [ē] [i] [ī] [o] [u] [ū]
G - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
W - - - + - - + - + + + + - - - - - - - - - - - - -
T - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + - + - + - - +
N - + - - + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
L - - - - - - - - - - - - + + + + + + + + + + + + +
S - - - - - - - - - - - + + + - - - - - - - - - - -
D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + + - - - - - - - - -
C - - - - - - - - - + + + - + + + - - - - + + - + +
P + + - - - + + + + + + - - - 0 0 0 0 - - - - + + +
O - - - - - + + + + - + - - - 0 0 + + - - - - - - -
E 0 0 0 - 0 - - + + 0 - 0 - - + - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
R 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - + 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Proto-Basque

Trask, R. L., Wheeler, Max W. (ed). 2008. Etymological Dictionary of Basque. Falmer, UK: University of Sussex.
https://www.academia.edu/2154989/Etymological_Dictionary_of_Basque_by_R_L_Trask_edited_for_web_publication_by_Max_W_Wheeler
語彙はwiktionaryにある分だけ

子音

fortis: (p) t k tz ts N L R
lenis: b d g z s n l r

fortis/lenisは+T/-Tでいいはず
(-G-W-T-N/-G-W+T-N/-G-W-T+N/+G-W-T+N)

Labial(+P-O) Dental(-P-O) Palatal(-P+O) Dorsal(+P+O)
Static stops(–L–S–D–C) b/(p) d/t/n/N g/k
Strident fricative/affricate(–L+S±D+C) z/tz - s/ts /
Lateral liquids(+L+S–D–C) l/L
Static trills(+L+S–D+C) r/R

z/sはlaminal/apicalなので+/-R

半子音

h:-G+W±T-N+L-S+D-C±P±O±E±R

母音

-G-W-T-N+L-S-D
a:-C±P+O±E±R
e:-C-P-O±E±R
i:+C-P-O±E±R
o:-C+P-O±E±R
u:+C+P-O±E±R

まとめ

[b]$gwtnlsdcPo__
[p]$gWTnlsdcPo__
[d]$gwtnlsdcpo__
[t]$gWTnlsdcpoe_
[n]$gwtNlsdcpo__
[N]$gwTNlsdcpo__
[g]$gwtnlsdcPOe_
[k]$gWTnlsdcPOe_
[z]$gWtnlSdCpo_R
[tz]$gWTnlSDCpo_R
[s]$gWtnlSdCpo_r
[ts]$gWTnlSDCpo_r
[l]$gwtnLSdcpoe_
[L]$gwTnLSdcpoe_
[r]$gwtnLSdCpoe_
[r]$gwTnLSdCpoe_
[h]$gW_nLsDc____
[a]$gwtnLsdc_O__
[ā]$gwTnLsdc_O__
[e]$gwtnLsdcpo__
[ē]$gwTnLsdcpo__
[i]$gwtnLsdCpo__
[ī]$gwTnLsdCpo__
[o]$gwtnLsdcPo__
[ō]$gwTnLsdcPo__
[u]$gwtnLsdCPo__
[ū]$gwTnLsdCPo__

[b] [p] [d] [t] [n] [N] [g] [k] [z] [tz] [s] [ts] [l] [L] [r] [r] [h] [a] [ā] [e] [ē] [i] [ī] [o] [ō] [u] [ū]
G - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
W - + - + - - - + + + + + - - - - + - - - - - - - - - -
T - + - + - + - + - + - + - + - + 0 - + - + - + - + - +
N - - - - + + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
L - - - - - - - - - - - - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
S - - - - - - - - + + + + + + + + - - - - - - - - - - -
D - - - - - - - - - + - + - - - - + - - - - - - - - - -
C - - - - - - - - + + + + - - + + - - - - - + + - - + +
P + + - - - - + + - - - - - - - - 0 0 0 - - - - + + + +
O - - - - - - + + - - - - - - - - 0 + + - - - - - - - -
E 0 0 0 - 0 0 - - 0 0 0 0 - - - - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
R 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 + + - - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

目標言語

Old pseudo-Pictish

Common Brittonicを踏襲

子音

(-G-W-T-N/-G+W-T-N/-G-W-T+N)

Labial(+P-O) Dental(-P-O) Palatal(-P+O) Dorsal(+P+O)
Static stops(–L–S–D–C) b/p/m d/t/n g/k/ŋ
Mellow fricative(–L–S-D+C) θ/ð/ /x/
Strident fricative(–L+S-D+C) /s/
Lateral liquids(+L+S–D–C) l//
Static trills(+L+S–D+C) r//

kʷ > p(つまりDorsal, labialized(+P+O+E) > Labial(+P-O)をするぞ、という意思はある)

半子音

Constrictive glides(-G-W-T-N+L-S+D+C±P±O)
w:+E-R
j:-E+R
Loose glides(-T-N+L-S+D-C±P±O±E±R)
h:-G+W

母音

-G-W-T-N+L-S-D/-G-W+T-N+L-S-D
a/ā:-C±P+O±E±R
e/ē:-C-P-O±E±R
i/ī:+C-P-O±E±R
o/ō:-C+P-O±E±R
u/ū:+C+P-O±E±R

まとめ

[b]$gwtnlsdcPo__
[p]$gWtnlsdcPo__
[m]$gwtNlsdcPo__
[d]$gwtnlsdcpo__
[t]$gWtnlsdcpoe_
[n]$gwtNlsdcpo__
[g]$gwtnlsdcPOe_
[k]$gWtnlsdcPOe_
[g]$gwtNlsdcPOe_
[ð]$gwtnlsdCpo__
[θ]$gWtnlsdCpoe_
[x]$gWtnlsdCPOe_
[s]$gWtnlSdCpo__
[l]$gwtnLSdcpoe_
[r]$gwtnLSdCpoe_
[w]$gwtnLsDC__Er
[j]$gwtnLsDC__eR
[h]$gW_nLsDc____
[a]$gwtnLsdc_O__
[ā]$gwTnLsdc_O__
[e]$gwtnLsdcpo__
[ē]$gwTnLsdcpo__
[i]$gwtnLsdCpo__
[ī]$gwTnLsdCpo__
[o]$gwtnLsdcPo__
[ō]$gwTnLsdcPo__
[u]$gwtnLsdCPo__
[ū]$gwTnLsdCPo__

[b] [p] [m] [d] [t] [n] [g] [k] [ŋ] [ð] [θ] [x] [s] [l] [r] [w] [j] [h] [a] [ā] [e] [ē] [i] [ī] [o] [ō] [u] [ū]
G - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
W - + - - + - - + - - + + + - - - - + - - - - - - - - - -
T - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 0 - + - + - + - + - +
N - - + - - + - - + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
L - - - - - - - - - - - - - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
S - - - - - - - - - - - - + + + - - - - - - - - - - - - -
D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + + + - - - - - - - - - -
C - - - - - - - - - + + + + - + + + - - - - - + + - - + +
P + + + - - - + + + - - + - - - 0 0 0 0 0 - - - - + + + +
O - - - - - - + + + - - + - - - 0 0 0 + + - - - - - - - -
E 0 0 0 0 - 0 - - - 0 - - 0 - - + - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
R 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - + 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Modern pseudo-Pictish

Scottish Gaelicを踏襲したい

語彙

PS PC PB
earth *ʼarṣ́- *talamū *lur
father *ʼab- *ɸatīr
god *ʼil-(āh)- *dēwos
grape/wine *wayn- *wīnom *banats
house *bayt- *tegos *etse
lord *baʻl- *tigernos *andots
king *malik- *brigantīnos
milk *x̣alīb- *laxtos
name *šim- *anman *izen
peace *šalām- *sedom
sun *śamš- *sāwol
tree *ʻiṣ́- *kʷresnom
water *māy- *dubros
blood *dam- *krowos *odoL
eye *ʻayn- *lukato- *begi
ear *'uðn- *kloustā *beraRi
hand *yad- *ɸlāmā *esku
heart *lib(a)b- *kridyom *bihotz
tongue *lišān-/*lašān- *tangʷāss *bini
tooth *šinn- *dant *(h)agin
bull *ṯawr- *tarwos
dog *kalb- *kū *zakuR
ewe *raḫil- *dametos

今回は"アライメントせず"、前から順に1分節音ごとに作業していくことを考える

earth

*ʼarṣ́-
*talamū
*lur

  • 1音目
    • PS:[']$GwtnLsDc____
    • PC:[t]$gWtnlsdcpo__
    • PB:[l]$gwtnLSdcpo__
    • →$gwtnLsdcpo__∈{e}
  • 2音目
    • PS:[a]$gwtnLsd__O__
    • PC:[a]$gwtnLsdc_O__
    • PB:[u]$gwtnLsdCPo__
    • →$gwtnLsd_PO__∈{a}
  • 3音目
    • PS:[r]$gwtnLSdCpo__
    • PC:[l]$gwtnLSdcpo__
    • PB:[r]$gwtnLSdCpo__
    • →$gwtnLSdCpo__∈{r}
  • 4音目
    • PS:[ṣ́]$gwTnlS_cpo__
    • PC:[a]$gwtnLsdc_O__
    • →$gw_n__dcp___∈$gw_nlsdcp___+$gw_nlSdcp___+$gw_nLsdcp___+$gw_nLSdcp___={t,T,s,S,a,ā,o,ō,l,L}
  • 語形
    • PS:*ʼarṣ́-
    • PC:*talamū
    • PB:*lur
    • →ear[tTsSaāoōlL]、三子音語根になってほしいこととかを考えると適当なglideを入れてwārL, yārL, hārLとかかな

メモ

father
ʼab-
ɸatīr

m([']$GwTnLsDc__E_, [ɸ]$gWtnlsdCPo__)=$nsPoE_⊂{b, p, w, o, ō, u, ū}
m(a)={a}
m([b]$gwtnlsdcPo__, [t]$gWtnlsdcpoe_)=$g_tnlsdc_oe_⊂{b, p, d, t}
→wab-

god
ʼil-(āh)-
dēwos

m([']$GwTnLsDc__E_, [d]$gwtnlsdcpo__)=$w_n_s_cpoE⊂{d, t, w, a, ā, o, ō, u, ū}
m([i]$gwtnLsd_po__, [ē]$gwTnLsdcpo__)=$gw_nLsdcpo__⊂{e, ē, i, ī}
m([l]$gwtnLSdcpoe_, [w]$gwtnLsDC__Er)=$gwtnLpor⊂{l, r, w, e, i}
m([ā]$gwTnLsd
O__, [o]$gwtnLsdcPo__)=$gw_nLsdcP⊂{a, ā, o, ō}
m([h]$gWtnLsDc
_, [s]$gWtnlSdCpo__)=$gWtn____po__⊂{t, θ, s, h}
→dēlāθ

grape/wine
wayn-
wīnom
*banats

m(way, wīn, ban)={wan}
m([n]$gwtNlsdcpo__, [o]$gwtnLsdcPo__, [a]$gwtnLsdc_O__)=$gwtnLsdc_o__⊂{e, i, o, u}
m([m]$gwtNlsdcPo__, [ts]$gWTnlSDCpo_r)=$gl_o_r⊂{b, p, m, d, t, n, ð, θ, s}
→wanið

house
bayt-
tegos
*etse

m([b]$gwtnlsdcPo__, [t]$gWtnlsdcpoe_, [e]$gwtnLsdcpo__)=$gwtnlsdcpoe_⊂{d}
m([a]$gwtnLsd__O__, [e]$gwtnLsdcpo__, [ts]$gWTnlSDCpo_r)=$gwtnLsdcpo_r⊂{e}
m([y]$gwtnLsDC__eR, [g]$gwtnlsdcPOe_, [e]$gwtnLsdcpo__)=$gwtnLsdc__eR⊂{a, e, o}
m(t, s)⊂{t, θ, s}
→deyeθ

lord
baʻl-
tigernos
*andots

king
malik-
brigantīnos

milk
x̣alīb-
laxtos

name
šim-
anman
*izen

peace
šalām-
sedom

sun
śamš-
sāwol

tree
ʻiṣ́-
kʷresnom

water
māy-
dubros

blood
dam-
krowos
*odoL

eye
ʻayn-
lukato-
*begi

ear
'uðn-
kloustā
*beraRi

hand
yad-
ɸlāmā
*esku

heart
lib(a)b-
kridyom
*bihotz

tongue
lišān-/lašān-
tangʷāss
bini

tooth
šinn-
dant
*(h)agin

bull
ṯawr-
tarwos

dog
kalb-

*zakuR

ewe
raḫil-
dametos

メモ

音声部分の決め方

中原メソッドで参照言語の単語並べてから目標言語のどれに当てはまるか決める
このとき、参照言語での音声は点で、目標言語での音声は範囲で決めてやった方が作業として楽なはず

外側(GWTN)

独立なのでそのまんま

様式(LSDC)

-L-C -L+C +L+C +L-C
-S-D Static stops Mellow fricative Constrictive vowels Loose vowels
-S+D Dynamic stops Mellow affricate Constrictive glides Loose glides
+S+D Lateral affricate Strident affricate Dynamic trills Flaps
+S-D Lateral fricative Strident fricative Static trills Lateral liquids

場所(POER)

独立なのでそのまんま

Edit
Pub: 18 Mar 2023 14:48 UTC
Edit: 23 Mar 2023 15:20 UTC
Views: 97