What is Atopic Dermatitis?

Although seen in individuals of all ages, AD most frequently occurs in childhood. The characteristic clinical features and distribution tend to evolve based on the age of the patient. The main triggers of atopic dermatitis are dry skin, irritants, stress, allergies, infection and heat/sweating.

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common type of eczema. In fact, more than 18 million American adults have atopic dermatitis which often appears as a red, itchy rash normally on the cheeks, arms and legs. AD presents different symptoms depending on the age of the person. Itching is the hallmark of AD, more than 85% of people with the condition experience this distressing symptom every day.

There is currently no reliable biomarker that can distinguish the disease from other entities.

When AD is mild, dermatologists may begin treatment by asking patients to avoid known triggers and to moisturize regularly to protect and strengthen the skin barrier. The maintenance therapy for AD consists of the liberal use of emollients and daily bathing practice with soap-free cleansers. The use of topical corticosteroids (TCS) is the first-line treatment for AD flare-ups.

Pimecrolimus and tacrolimus are topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs) that can be used in conjunction with TCS. Ultraviolet phototherapy is a safe and effective treatment for moderate-to-severe AD when first-line treatments are not adequate. In addition to these, antistaphylococcal antibiotics are effective in treating secondary skin infections.

Patients with severe sleep disturbance due to pruritus are offered a short-term, intermittent course of an oral sedating antihistamine such as Diphenhydramine (Benadryl) or Hydroxyzine; however, they are not routinely recommended because of lack of evidence that they reduce pruritus and the risk of development of contact dermatitis. Eucrisa (Crisaborole), Dupixent (Dupilumab), Corectim ointment and Olumiant (baricitinib) are approved drugs for AD.

Targeted biologic therapeutics - Anti-IL-4Ra therapy (dupilumab): Dupilumab is a monoclonal antibody that inhibits interleukin (IL)–4 and IL-13 signaling by blocking the shared IL-4Ra. It was approved by the US FDA in 2017 for adults with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis not adequately controlled with topical prescription therapies or when those therapies are not advisable. In 2019, this indication was expanded to include adolescents aged 12 years or older. It is a subcutaneous injection administered every two weeks.

Topical phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE-4) inhibitors: Eucrisa is a phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor indicated for topical treatment of mild to moderate atopic dermatitis in patients 2 years of age and older. PDE-4 inhibition results in increased intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels. The specific mechanism(s) by which crisaborole exerts its therapeutic action for thetreatment of atopic dermatitis is not well defined.

Original Source:- https://www.delveinsight.com/report-store/atopic-dermatitis-ad-market

Pub: 21 Jul 2021 08:46 UTC
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