Proto Altaic > Mongolic

Proto Altaic Consonants

p῾- p b m
t῾ t d n s z r
č῾ č ǯ ń š j ŕ
k῾ k g ŋ

Proto Altaic > Proto Mongolic

Here we must suppose the following sequence of events:

  • A. Loss of *š
      1. *š- > *č῾- before back vowels
      1. *š > *s elsewhere
  • B. Loss of *p῾
      1. *p῾- > *h
  • C. Deaffricatization of *č
      1. *č- > *t
  • D. Transformation of resonants
    • 5a. *ń- > *ǯ-, *ĺ- > *d
    • 5b. *ŋ- > *0-, *n-, *g- (depending on the following vowel)
      • a) *j- in several cases before original diphthongs
      • b) *g- in front of -u-
      • c) *0- in front of -ö-, -ü-
      • d) *n- in all other cases
    • 5c. *-ŕ- > *-r-, *-ĺ- > -l-, *-ń- > -n- or -j- [the latter with still unclear distribution]
  • E. Loss of *z
      1. *z- > *s
  • F. Palatalization of dentals before *i
      1. *t῾ > *č῾, *t > *č, *d > *ǯ
  • G. Fricativization of *-b-, *-g-, *-ŋ
    • 8a. *-b- > *-w- [except for positions in clusters and before *k, *g]
    • 8b. *-g- > *-h- [except for positions in clusters and before *g]
    • 8c. *-ŋ- > *-h- [except for positions in clusters where it stays as *-ŋg-; after *n- where *-ŋ- > -g-; and before *b, *g where *-ŋ- > *-m-]
  • H. Intervocalic Lautverschiebung
      1. *-p- > *-b-, *-t- > *-d-, *-k- > *-g- [but not *-č- > *-ǯ-!]
      1. *-p῾- > *-p-, *-t῾- > *-t-, *-k῾- > *-k-, *-č῾- > *-č
  • I. Accent transformation of *p
      1. *p῾ > (*fV) > *hV
  • J. Initial Lautverschiebung
      1. *p-, *t- > *b-, *d
      1. *t῾-, *k῾-, *č῾- > *t-, *k-, *č

p῾

*p῾- > *h
*-p῾- > *-p-
*p῾ > (*fV) > *hV

p

*-p- > *-b-
*p- > *b-

b

*b- > *b-
*-b- > *-w- [except for positions in clusters and before *k, *g]

m

t῾

*t῾ > *č῾/_i
*-t῾- > *-t-
*t῾- > *t-
*-t῾ > *-d

t

*t > *č/_i
*-t- > *-d-
*t- > *d-

d

*d > *ǯ/_i

n

s

z

*z- > *s

r

l

č῾

*-č῾- > *-č
*č῾- > *č

č

*č- > *t

ǯ

ń

*ń- > *ǯ-
*-ń- > -n- or -j-

š

*š- > *č῾- before back vowels
*š > *s elsewhere

j

ŕ

*-ŕ- > *-r-

ĺ

*ĺ- > *d
*-ĺ- > -l-

k῾

*-k῾- > *-k-
*k῾- > *k-

k

*-k- > *-g-

g

*-g- > *-h- [except for positions in clusters and before *g]

ŋ

*ŋ- > *j- in several cases before original diphthongs
*ŋ- > *g- in front of -u-
*ŋ- > *0- in front of -ö-, -ü-
*ŋ- > *n- in all other cases
*-ŋ- > *-g- after n- (rule established by I. Gruntov)
*-ŋ- > *-m- before the following
-ɣ- and *-b-
*-ŋ- > *-ŋg- in a few cases before the following -ir-, -ur-, -ul-

consonants cluster

PA PM
*rp῾ rb
*rp rb
*rb rb
*rm rm
*rt῾ t
*rt d
*rd rd/(r)ǯ
*rč?
*rs rs
*rk῾ rk
*rk rg
*rg rg,r(V)ɣ
*ŕm rm/rb
*ŕk rk
*ŕg rg
*lp῾ lb
*lp lb
*lb lb
*lm l(b)
*lt῾ lt
*lt lt
*ld ld
*lč
*lk῾ lk
*lk lg
*lg lg,lVɣ
*ĺp῾ lb
*ĺp lb
*ĺb lb,lVɣ
*ĺm lb
*ĺd ld
*ĺn jVl
*ĺč῾
*ĺč
*ĺǯ
*ĺń n
*ĺk lg
*ĺŋ lVg
*mp῾ m
*mp mb
*mb mb
*mt md
*mr nd
*ml lm
*mč
*mń mn
*mŕ md
*ms bs
*mk mk/nk
*mg mg/ŋg
*mŋ m
*nt῾ nt
*nt nd/nč
*nd nd/nǯ
*nč῾
*nǯ
*ns
*nŕ r
*nŋ n/m
*ńd nd
*ńŋ ɣ/ŋg
*ŋt῾ n,ŋd,(ŋ)ǯ(i)
*ŋt d,nd
*ŋr ɣVr/nd
*ŋn (n)/ŋ,ŋn
*ŋč ǯ
*ŋń ŋ/ɣ
*ŋĺ ŋl
*ŋk῾ jVk,nVk
*ŋk ŋ(g)
*ŋg ŋg
*jp῾ ɣ,-b
*jp b
*jb b
*jm (jV)m
*jt d
*jr r
*jl l
*jč č
*jǯ ɣVǯ
*js s
*jń n/j/gVɣ
*jŕ j
*jĺ l
*jk῾ k
*jk g
*jg ɣ
*jŋ ŋ/ɣ/j
*pr wr(ɣVr)
*br wr,r
*bl ɣVl/jVl/wl
*bč῾
*bč č
*bǯ ǯ
*p῾ŕ ɣVr
*bŕ ɣVr
*bs s
*bk῾ k
*bg b/g
*bŋ mVɣ
*gm? ɣVm
*kt῾ gt
*kt gd/gǯ
*gt? ɣVǯ
*gd d/ǯ
*kr ɣVr
*gr ɣVr
*kl? gl
*gl wl
*kŕ ɣVr
*gĺ ɣVl
*gn ɣVɣ
*gs gs
*k῾ŋ ŋg
*kŋ ŋg
*gŋ ɣVg
*kč
*kǯ
*t῾k῾? t
*tk? d(Vg)
*dg? d
*sk sk
Edit
Pub: 20 May 2022 06:24 UTC
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