DARSHANA Philosophical Systems Nyaya & Vaisheshika Samkhya & Yoga Mimamsa Kumarila School Mimamsa Prabhakar School Advaita Vedanta School Vishishta-Advaita Vedanta School Dvaita Vedanta School
ANALYSIS CRITERIA
1. Epistemology – Nature of knowledge
Number of sources of Knowledge 4 3 5 6 6 3 3
Valid sources of knowledge
Vedas YES YES YES YES YES YES YES
Perception YES YES YES YES YES YES YES
Inference YES YES YES YES YES YES YES
Analogy YES NO YES YES YES NO NO
Presumption NO NO YES YES YES NO NO
Non-apprehension NO NO NO YES YES NO NO
Author of Vedas God Authorless Authorless Authorless Authorless Authorless Authorless
Nature of Vedas Non-Eternal Non-Eternal Eternal Eternal Eternal Eternal Eternal
2. Ontology – Nature of Reality
Monism, Dualism, Plularism Pluralism Dualism Plularism Plularistic Monism Plularism Plularism
Elements of Reality God, Souls, Material atoms, Space, Time, Minds Primal Matter, Souls Souls, Material Atoms, Space, Time, Minds Souls, Material Atoms, Space, Time, Minds, Vedas God (Brahman) God (Vishnu), Souls, Matter, Time God (Vishnu), Souls, Space, Matter, Time, Vedas
3. Theology – Nature of God
Single Supreme God YES NO NO NO Only God (Brahman) YES YES
Limited Spirits (Gods) Ignored YES YES YES Illusions YES YES
Role of God Karma Enforcer - - - - Karma Enforcer Karma Enforcer
4. Cosmology – Nature of Universe
Creator of Universe God Self-evolved None None God God God
Nature of Universe Periodic Creation & dissolution From and to material Atoms, which are External to God Evolution and Involution of Primal Matter by Own inherent Force It is uncreated and Eternal It is uncreated and Eternal God, which is The whole Being, appears as God, Souls And matter (snake-rope Analogy) Periodic creation & dissolution From and to Matter, which is Part of God’s Body (spider- Web analogy) Periodic creation & dissolution From and to Matter, which is External to God (mason-building Analogy)
5. Psychology – Nature of Soul
Number of Souls Infinite Infinite Infinite Infinite Infinite Infinite Infinite
Unique or identical Unique Identical - - Irrelevant Identical Unique
Nature of soul Has no consciousness Has Consciousness Has no Consciousness Conscious, Non-conscious Substance Consciousness Equals soul Consciousness and Bliss are the Essence of soul Consciousness and Bliss are the Essence of soul
6. Soteriology – Nature of Salvation
Attained Through Knowledge Meditation Vedic Rituals Vedic Rituals Knowledge Devotion Devotion
Type of Yoga Jnana Dhyana/Raja Karma Karma Jnana Bhakti/Prapati Bhakti
Consciousness is experienced NO YES NO Possible NO YES YES
Bliss is experienced NO NO NO Possible NO YES YES
Status of the Soul after Attaining Salvation Soul merely exists Without Consciousness or Bliss ** ( I.e no self- Identity, but for External observer There is identity) Soul exists and Has consciousness But no bliss ** Soul merely exists Without Consciousness or Bliss ** ( i.e no self- Identity, but for External observer There is identity) Soul has option To possess both Consciousness And bliss ** (which are always potential to the soul) Soul disappears As God (Brahman) And leaves no Trace Souls are alike And dwell in Heaven forever. They serve God And have Consciousness and Bliss ** equal to Those of God Souls dwell in Heaven serving God forever. There is a Hierarchy based On level of Consciousness and Bliss ***
* Vedas are accepted as Varifiable truth in Samkhya-Yoga as opposed to acceptance by faith
** Bliss is joy as associated with pleasure as opposed to pain.
*** In Dvaita Vedanta alone, there could be souls who could be damed forever. All other philosophies give souls endless chances of salvation.
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Pub: Jan 31 2021 06:30 UTC
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