Schleicher's fable in Tocharian D

とりあえずPGmを変化させただけのやつ

ay špä yähwa

ay, þayäsa wälla ñä wa yähwa sahw;

þana kwär wakna ykantä, þana mitsäla pärtsäña, þana kwäman hraþa pirant.

ay yhwama sakce:

“tsärta antsatay mi šhwanc yära yähwa akant.”

yähwa sakcet:

“hoši, ay! tsärta antsatay wänš šhwantämo:

yära, fraya, aya wälla šä warma wasc toyc.

yahw aya wälla ñä yäsc.”

þa hošäta ay akra floh.

単語を一個ずつ検討した

  1. scepa yähwimpa
    The Sheep and the Horses

words

scepa n.(a-stem): sheep(cognite of PGm *skēpą)
yähwa n.(a-stem): horse(< PToch yäkwe)

  1. scepa, kuse wälla ñä hafacet yähwan šehwt;
    A sheep that had no wool saw horses;

words

kuse REL: that(relative pronoun)
wälla n.(ō-stem): wool
ñä: no, not any
hapia v.(weak): have
šähwa v.(Strong class5): see(*sehwaną)

  1. ayna swerana wakna yäka, ayna mitsälana perpent, ayna kwämanu ramer ykana.
    one pulling a heavy wagon, one carrying a big load, and one carrying a man quickly.

words

ayna n.(a-stem): one
swera adj.: heavy(*swēraz)
wakna n.(a-stem): wagon
yäka v.(strong class5): pull
mitsälana adj.: big, large
perpent n.(root-stem): load, burden
kwäma n.(an-stem): man, human
ramer adv.: quickly, suddenly

  1. scepa yähwan sascet:
    The sheep said to the horses:

words

satsa v.(weak): say

  1. “mina tsärta smircac mik, šähwa kwäma yähwan tŕipa.”
    “My heart pains me, seeing a man driving horses”.

words

yak/mik/mina/mi: pron.1.sg.
tsärta n.(an-stem): heart
smirta v.(strong class3): hurt, pain
tŕipa v.(strong class1): drive

  1. yähwi satsetanc:
    The horses said:
  2. “pähluš, scep! wänšära tsärti smircanc wä šähwa kuse:
    “Listen, sheep, our hearts pain us when we see this:

words

hluša v.(strong class2-u)
wi/wä/wänšära/wänš: pron.1.pl.

  1. kwäma, käššä, scepay wälla yä warma wetsi skapic.
    a man, the master, makes the wool of the sheep into a warm garment for himself.

words

käššä n.(i-stem): teacher, master
yä/yäna/yä/yämay: pron.3.sg.m.
warma adj.: warm
wetsä n.(i-stem): garment, clothes
skapa v.(strong class6): make, create

  1. scepampa wälla ñä hapic.”
    And the sheep has no wool”.
  2. þa hoša, scepa miša floht.
    Having heard this, the sheep fled into the plain.

words

þa/þana/þa/þamay: pron.3.sg.n.
hoši v.(weak)
miša n.(a-stem): plain, field
flyoha v.(strong class2-e): flee, escape

単語の比較

Toch. D Toch. B
1 scepa nom.(a-stem) sheep(cognite of PGm *skēpą) śaiyye, eye
2 yähwa nom.(a-stem) horse(< PToch yäkwe) haye, yakwe
3 kuse REL that(relative pronoun) kuce
4 wälla nom.(ō-stem) wool yok
5 ñä no, not any
6 hapia v.(weak) have ?
7 šähwa v.(Strong class5) see(*sehwaną) läk-, pälk-
8 ayna nom.(a-stem) one še
9 swera adj. heavy(*swēraz) kramartstse
10 wakna nom.(a-stem) wagon kleńke, kokale
11 yäka v.(strong class5) pull yärtt-
12 mitsälana adj. big, large orotstse
13 perpent nom.(root-stem) load, burden calle, perpette, talle
14 kwäma nom.(an-stem) man, human śaumo
15 ramer adv. quickly, suddenly ramer, ñatke
16 satsa v.(weak) say we-
17 yak/mik/mina/mi pron.1.sg. ñaś
18 tsärta nom.(an-stem) heart arañce
19 smirta v.(strong class3) hurt, pain mi-
20 tŕipa v.(strong class1) drive āk-, kälts-
21 hluša v.(strong class2-u) listen, hear klyaus-
22 wi/wä/wänšära/wänš pron.1.pl. wes
23 käššä nom.(i-stem) teacher, master käššī, upādhyāye
24 yä/yäna/yä/yämay pron.3.sg.m. su
25 warma adj. warm emalle
26 wetsä nom.(i-stem) garment, clothes wastsi, yesti
27 skapa v.(strong class6) make, create klutk-, yām-, ritt-
28 þa/þana/þa/þamay pron.3.sg.n. te, tu
29 hoši v.(weak) listen, hear klyaus-
30 miša nom.(a-stem) plain, field mīše, keta, šito (?)
31 flyoha v.(strong class2-e) flee, escape mlutk-

統語から逃げるな

はい。

  1. scepa špä yähwimpa
    The Sheep and the Horses

並列はand -OBL-COM

words

špä~šäp~š conj.: and

  1. scepa, kuse ñä wälla hafacet, yähwan šehwt;
    A sheep that had no wool saw horses;

関係代名詞kuseは先行する名詞に合わせて格変化する(今回は主格なのでOK)
AN, SOV
点過去(preterite)と未完了(imperfective)はもう単純におれが区別できないんでいいです

  1. ayna swerana wakna waht, ayna mitsälana perpent, ayna kwämanu ramer waht.
    one pulling a heavy wagon, one carrying a big load, and one carrying a man quickly.

ここ関係詞節でつないでるならともかくそうじゃないのでただの過去形でいいや

words

yäka/wah/yekwäm/ykana "to move, to carry"(< PGm *weganą)、わかりにくくない?

  1. scepa yähwan sascet:
    The sheep said to the horses:
  2. “mina tsärta mik smircac, ente yähwan tŕipa kwämanu šähwa .”
    “My heart pains me, seeing a man driving horses”.

関係副詞節は以下の関係副詞が先行する
時間、場所:ente
理由:kuce
目的:mäkte
状況:krui
分詞……よくわからんけど限定詞ではあるし前置すればいいかな

  1. yähwi satsetanc:
    The horses said:
  2. “pähluš, scep! wänšära tsärti wä smircanc ente þana šähwama:
    “Listen, sheep, our hearts pain us when we see this:

呼格。ゲルマン祖語のa-stemでは-aがない語幹のみの語形が呼格として残る。トカラ語には呼格がない。うーん

  1. ente kwäma, käššä, scepay wälla yäna warmana wetsice skapic.
    a man, the master, makes the wool of the sheep into a warm garment for himself.

直接目的語がACC、間接目的語がALL
格の一致は二次格に対しては対格で一致する

words

skapic < skapa v.(strong class6)のPRS.3.sg.、pʲä > piがあるので不規則に見える

  1. špä scepa ñä wälla hapic.”
    And the sheep has no wool”.
  2. ente þa hoša, scepa mišanë floht.
    Having heard this, the sheep fled into the plain.

入格としての意味は所格が持つ

Edit
Pub: 29 Sep 2022 15:01 UTC
Edit: 01 Oct 2022 17:05 UTC
Views: 122