トカラ語の音韻変化

Major changes from PIE to PT

Consonants

  1. PIE 無声/有声/有声有気の3対立が合流
    例外: *t, *dh > PT *t, *d > PT *ts (Winter 1962).
    *t, *dh > PT *t, *d > PT *tsは以下の変化によるもの
  • a. *ty > *ts
  • b. Grassmann’s Law: *dh > *d/_Vh(Winter 1962:24-5)
  • c. *d > *∅ in syllable onset before *r, *w, *y (Winter 1962:29-33, Schindler 1966, Ringe 1996:64-6)
  1. PIE 硬口蓋音と軟口蓋音が合流
    例外:唇音化したら対立は保存
  2. 口蓋化が前舌母音の前で生じる
    • *p~*py
    • *t~*c
    • *k~*ś
    • *kw~*ś
    • *ts~*ś
    • *s~*ṣ
    • *m~*my
    • *n~*ñ
    • *l~*ly
    • *r~*ry
    • *w~*wy
    • (*y~*y)
  3. 語末音法則(Auslautgesetze): PIE *-s, *-n, *-t/d [d] > *-Ø; PIE *-nt, *-ns, *-nts > *-Ø
    結果としてPTの語末には母音または流音*r, *lのみが立つ。ただし以下の例外を除く
  • a. pres./subj. 3pl. *-әn < *-әnt < PIE *-n̥ti, thematic *-ën < *-ont < PIE *-onti
  • b. acc. sg. of animate nouns: PT *-nә > TB /-nә/, reanalyzed as /-n/

Vowels

  • 普通の母音変化
    • *i, *e > *yə
    • *u > *wə/#, K
    • *u > *ə/^{#, K}
    • *R > *ə/^#_
    • *o > *e
    • *R > #_
    • *a > *a
    • *ī > *yi
    • *ē > ye/^_#
    • *ē > a/_#
    • *ū > u
    • *ō > u/w_, _w
    • *ō > a
    • *ā > a
  • Mutual rounding
    • *ē, *u, *o > o/_CV[+round]
  1. トカラ大母音推移:長母音の短母音化、pre-PT *e, *i, *u が*əに合流
    *e, *iは前の子音を口蓋化, *uは近くの軟口蓋子音を円唇化
    語頭で母音の割れ*e-, *i- > PT *yә-, *u- > PT *wə-
    *wi > *wu > *wə (not *wyә)
  2. 語末でPIE *-ā > PT *-a
  3. 二重母音はそれぞれの要素が短母音として変化を受ける。例:PIE *oy, *ey > PT *ëy, *yəy
  4. ウムラウト
  • a. pre-PT u-umlaut *o > *ọ before *u, *ū
  • b. a-umlaut: unstressed *ë > *a / __ C1a
  • c. o-umlaut: (unstressed?) *ë > *o / __ C1o
  1. əの発生
  • a. *R̥ > *əR (except word-initial *R̥- > *ëR-)
  • b. 三重子音の母音挿入 *kst, *pst > *kəst, *pəst
  • c. 口蓋化や円唇化をしたうえで *e, *i, *u が*əに合流
  1. *wを挟んだ母音の合流
    *ëwë > PT *ë
    *ewә > PT *ọ
    *owë > PT *o
    *ëwә, *əwë > PT *o
    *awë > PT *a
    *awә > PT *o
  2. 母音交代
    *CeC > PT *CyəC - *CoC > PT *CëC - *C(e)C > PT *CəC
    *CeRC > PT *CyəRC - *CoRC > PT *CëRC - *CR̥C > PT *CəRC
    *CeyC > PT *CyəyC - *CoyC > PT *CëyC - *CiC > *CyəC —> PT *CəyC
    *CewC > PT *CyəwC - *CowC > PT *CëwC - *CuC > *CəC —> PT *CəwC

Laryngeal

PIE *CHC > pre-PT *CaC
PIE *#HC- > pre-PT *#C-
PIE *VHC > pre-PT *V:C
PIE *#HxR̥- > pre-PT *#VxR-?
PIE *R̥HC > pre-PT *R̥C
PIE *ih2(#) > pre-PT *ya(#)

PT to Tocharian B

Consonants

  1. *wy, *y > y
  2. *py, *my > *p, *m
  • 後ろで*ә > i
  1. *ś > *ts

Vowels and diphthongs

  1. *ë, *e > e
  2. stressed *ëにもa-umlaut; *ë > *a / __ C1a
  3. unstressed *əが開音節で脱落; 強勢の有無による/a/-/ә/の交代がclassical TB時代に生じた

PT to Tocharian A

Consonants

  1. PT *wy, *w > w
  2. *py, *my > *p, *m

Vowels and diphthongs

  1. PT *ë > a; PT *e, *o > a
  • 非口蓋化両唇音(*p or *m)に接している場合PT *e, *o > o
  1. 語末*-a, *-ë, *-e, *-oが消滅
  2. 母音弱化. Normally PT *a > pre-TA *ā, but
  • 第二音節*ā > *a/第一音節に“全母音”(*ā, *a, *e, *o)
  • 第二音節*a > *ä/第一音節と第三音節に“全母音”
  1. *Vns > *Vys, *-Vn > *-Vy, *Vññ > *Vyñ; word-final *-ñ > *-n.
  2. Monophthongization of PT *Vy, *Vw > *e, *o
  3. Fate of PT *ә > pre-PT *ä, and elimination of phonemic *ä
  • epenthesis of *ä in consonant clusters created by apocope
  • syncope of *ä in open syllables
Edit
Pub: 07 Sep 2022 14:28 UTC
Edit: 20 Sep 2022 12:45 UTC
Views: 118