イラン祖語の生物語彙

植物

植物の部位

‘root’: *rau̯taka/rau̯θaka-

Bal. rōtag (borrowed in Brahūi as rōtk),

‘fruit’: *bara(ka)-

Sogd. βrʼk, βryy, bry, brw varē; Chwrsm. βrk,

‘leaf’: *parna-

YAv. parəna-; Sogd. prn; MPers. pl, pr parr; Kurd- Kurm. pher̄; NPers. parr (together with the derivative *parnaka- Parth. prg parrag)

‘leaf’: *u̯arka-

YAv. varəka-; MPers. wlg, włg warg; KurdKurm. belg; Gīlakī bərg; NPers. barg, with derivative *u̯arkara- Parth. wrgr wargar, Sogd. wrkr, Khotan. bāggara-.

‘bud’, *tau̯ka-

Digor tog, Iron tug, Yidgha tūga, develops the metaphoric meaning ‘blood’ (5.1.3.),

‘bough, branch’ also means ‘antlers’ (5.1.): *k͡ ɕāxā- /k͡ ɕākā-

Ved. śā́khā- < PIIr. (t)ćākhā-; for Iranian, see MPers. šʾk’ šāg ~ šʾhʾn šāxān; specialized for ‘branch’ is ʧangā- NPers. čang, Pṣ̌t. c’ānga. Also of PIIr. origin is rudmii̯a- ‘sprouting’ YAv. uruθmiia- < rudhmiya-.

‘seed’ (5.2.): *bīʣaka-

Sogd. βyzʾk vīzē < PIIr. bīja-, Ved. bīja-. ʧiθra- (O/YAv. ciθra-, OWIr. ciça-; richly attested in MIr. and NIr.) means ‘(human) seed’ and thence ‘descent, origin, nature’ (5.2.); cf. its derivative ʧiθraka- Parth. cyhrg čihrag, MPers. cyhlk čihrag, NPers. čihra. The connotations of ‘seed(s)’ and ‘genus’ (5.2.) are visible in tau̯xman- YAv. taoxma; Parth. twxm, Bactr. τοχμανο, Yaghn. taxm, NPers. tuxm.

作物植物

‘grain, corn’ (5.2.): *dānā-

Šuγn. δůn; Xufi, Roshani δōn and its derivative *dānaka- ‘seed, seed(ling)s’ Yazgh. δan’āg, Šuγn. δůnǰ, also NPers. dāna.

‘grass’:margii̯ā-

a feminine substantivation of an appurtinative adj. derived from *margā-, whose meaning in Iranian is ‘meadow, grass, woods’ (rather than ‘road’, as in Indic).

樹木

‘wood, tree’*dāruka-

Parth. dʼlwg dālū˘g; Sogd. δʼrwʼk, δʼrwq ð’āruk; also NIr.: Yaghn. dork, Šuγn. δōrg.
‘tree’u̯an-, u̯anā-, together with derivatives u̯anakā- u̯anāka- u̯anasika-,
is specialized in the meaning ‘tree’ (and ‘wood’ in the sense of ‘forest’).

果樹

*amarnā- ‘apple’
*padka- ‘apple/poplar?’
*gau̯ʣā- ‘walnut’
*nāxa- ‘apricot’
*ərmāka- ‘date(-tree/fruit)’

灌木

‘rose’ : u̯ard- ~ u̯ərd- (with a deriv. u̯ərdaka-) in MPers.

gwl gul, Parth. wʾr, Sogd. wrd warδ, NPers. gul, borrowed via Turkic into SSlav. and other European languages.

‘ivy’: *θanū-

YAv. θanuuas-ca, cf. NPers. san,

‘blackcurrant’: *ʤanata-

is limited to Bajui ɣˇinīd, Xufi ɣˇenūd.

*dramna- ‘a shrub, wormwood’

, attested in WMIr.: MPers. dlmnk, NPers. dirmana, shows up in Yaghn. dirawna and in the Pamir languages: Ishk. dərəm; Munji lərīvä(n); Šuγn., Xufi, Roshani, Bartangī cūδm.

特定の植物

*arʣana- ‘millet’

*kaʦaka- ‘barley’

*i̯au̯a-,

so well attested in the last meaning in Indic, has undergone semantic broadening to ‘grain’, in which value it is employed in competition with or parallel to *ʤāra- of the same meaning.

‘garlic’*ʦigra-

‘birch’: *barʣā-

< PIIr. bhr̥Hȷ́a- (Ved. bhūrja-) in Alan. barzā, Digor bærzæ, Iron bærz, partly in the form fərʣā- Waxi fürz.

‘jujuba’: *ʦinʦitā-

Khotan. śīṃja, śiji; Wanetsi sinj’ī; Munji siǰīä or *ʦinkatā- Sogd. synkt-.

‘willow’: *u̯ai̯ti-

YAv. vaēti-, Khotan. bī, MPers. wyt wēd, NPers. bēd, Bal. gēt continue well-established IE words

*gaʣa- ‘reed; firewood; tamarisk’ is limited to MIr. and NIr.

‘soma plant’, *anʦu-

YAv. ąsu-, is of common PIIr. heritage, derived from *anćú- Ved. aṁśú-, both Indic and Iranian showing traces of the semantic specialization from ‘stem, stalk’ to the ‘(soma/haoma) stalk’ par excellence.

動物

人間にも使う

*əršān- ‘male, bull, stallion’

形容詞に由来する語が多い

‘animal’, *ʣu̯ara-, from an agentival adj. ‘going crookedly’

*mərga- ‘(wild) animal’ → ‘bird’

āʦu- < aHʦú- ‘fast’ → ‘antelope, deer’

, also suffixed: *āʦu-ka-

‘wild’*kau̯fi̯aka- →‘deer’

MPers. kwpyk’ kōfīg, NPers. kōhī, KurdKurm. khûvî ‘deer’.

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Pub: 10 Apr 2022 14:26 UTC
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