Technical-environmental-cultural vocabulary

『Kamas』(Gerson Klumpp, University of Tartu)より

Introductory comments

The words assembled in this overview reflect some more or less characteristic traits of the Kamas culture, and at the same time the origins of these words reveals something about their cultural contacts. So while, e.g., Kamas reindeer terminology is of Proto Samoyed (PS) origin, horse terminology is more or less exclusively of Turkic (Tu.) origin.
The Proto Samoyed reconstructions come from Janhunen 1977 and/or Helimski 1997; Turkic data from Joki 1952.
The words come in a phonological transcription, however, sometimes a more narrow phonetic transcription is quoted. In morpheme segmentations, the simple hyphen (-) precedes inflectional morphemes, the double hyphen (=) derivational morphemes.

The hunting and gathering calender (cf. Klumpp 2002b)

Spring months

i.e. approximately March, April, and May:

    1. bari=j ki ‘crow month’;
    1. ńăga=j=zən ‘(month) to hunt the Burunduk’;
    1. [nɛ̄ǹdi’=sən] ‘(month) to dry (food) over fire’;

summer months

i.e. approx. June, July, and August:

    1. šo=j=də-na ki ‘birchbark collecting month’;
    1. surno=j ki ‘rainy month’;
    1. tăŋə-n ťer ‘mid summer’;

autumn months

i.e. approx. September, October, and November:

    1. kumaŋ ki ‘arid month’;
    1. saməj=də-na ki ‘hunting-in-forest month’;
    1. üďüge šiššə ‘minor cold’;

winter months

i.e. approx. December, January, and February:

    1. urgo šiššə=j ki ‘big cold month’;
    1. ke-n ťer ki ‘mid-winter month’;
    1. săgər=bak ‘(month) for driven hunt’ (Tu.).

Hunting and fishing

Hunting:

  • berži- [βēržī(i-] ‘hunt on the steppe’ vs. saməj- ‘hunt in the mountain forest’;
  • alman ‘Yasak (i.e. tax paid in furs)’ (Tu.);

Game (cf. Janurik 1988):

  • šili ‘sable’ (PS *ki) ~ [ďž́u˲γu˲ďž́ɯk͑ ] id. (unkn. orig.) ~ albuga id. (Tu.);
  • ńăga ‘Burunduk (Tamias sibiricus)’;
  • tažə’b ‘squirrel’ (cf. Selk. *täpäŋ);
  • kaguldan [kāγuлdan] ~ [kåγdɒǹ] ~ [k͑ăл̀dǎn] ‘wild reindeer’ (unkn. orig.);
  • [sə̑γə̑n] ~ [sı̮̀n] ‘Maral (Cervus canadensis sibiricus)’ (Tu. sıγın);
  • bulan ‘moose’ (Tu.) ~ ka id. (PS *ka);
  • pō’du ‘wild goat (Capra sibirica)’ (cf. PS *pajta ‘goat; deer’);
  • urgāba ‘bear (lit. grandfather; hunting taboo expression)’ ~ kašku id. (lit. tramp) (Tu.) ~ konu id. (Tu.) ~ [səi̭də-nɛ] büźe id. (lit. ?-ing man);
  • ma’ńi ‘wolf’ (unkn. orig.) ~ kuš id. (Tu. quš ‘fowl; deer’) ~ numo ťima id. (lit. long tail);
  • meŋgəj ‘fox’ (*men-kə̑j ‘dog-animal’);
  • mĭŋńi ‘wolverine’ (PS *wiŋkə̑ncä);
  • söje ‘capercaillie’ (cf. PS *seŋkä id.);
  • uŋa ‘partridge’ (PU *aŋɜ ‘ptarmigan’);
  • na’b ‘duck’ (PS *ńäp);

Hunting equipment:

  • inə ‘bow’ (PS *i̮ntə);
  • ‘arrow’ (PS *muŋkə ‘clump arrow’);
  • [ɛ’Bdə-ňnɛ] ~ [ə̑ ’BDı-̣ǹe] ‘arm protection for bow shooting’ (unkn. orig.);
  • multuk ‘rifle’ (Tu.);
  • ńa ‘bullet’ (PS *ńe1j ‘arrow’);
  • ťākku ‘rifle rest’ (Mong.);
  • men ‘dog’ (PS *we̮n);
  • bargo ‘horn for attracting maral’ (Tu.);
  • baspa’ ‘log trap for squirrels’ (cf. Tu. pas- ‘press’);
  • kuž-ən tura ‘pit trap for wolves (lit. wolf’s house)’;
  • ťezəŋ ‘sling trap (for capercaillie)’ (PS *je1sɜn2 ‘sling’);

Fishing:

  • kola=j- ‘to fish’ (kola ‘fish’ < PS *kalä);
  • türme ‘roe’ (PS *tirämä ~ *türämä);
  • kam ‘fish scale’ (earlier also ‘money’) (PS *kämə);
  • nöre ‘fish trap’ (unkn. orig.);
  • [pɯďž́əri] ~ [bɯďž́əri] ‘fish heaver’ (cf. PS *wikɜrä ‘fish spear’).

Nutrition

meat

  • uja ‘meat’ (PS *åjå);
  • śil ‘fat’ (PS *silə);
  • ťür ‘grease’ (PS *jür);
  • mĭje ‘soup’ (PS *we̮ńɜ);
  • tus ‘salt’ (Tu.);

vegetable

  • ke’bdə ‘berry’ (PS *ke̮ptə ‘currant’);
  • sanə ‘nut’ (PS *sə̑ŋkə̑ ‘cone, nut’);
  • o’bdə- ‘gather, pick’;
  • tugul ‘Lilium martagon;
  • **sarana’ (PS *tokɜl);
  • tĭl=zen ‘spade’ (PS *tilə=psɜn);
  • köbergen ‘onion’ (Tu.);

carbohydrate

  • ippek ‘bread’ (Tu.);
  • arba ‘grain, wheat’ (Tu.);
  • ‘rye’;
  • aš to’b=də-na mašina ‘threshing machine (lit. rye beating machine)’;
  • ťü tĭl=də-ne baza ‘plow (lit. earth digging iron)’;
  • un ‘flour’ (Tu.);
  • jablak ‘potatoe’ (Tu. ← Ru.);

dairy

  • süt ‘milk’ (Tu.);
  • tüžöj ‘cow’ (Tu.);
  • ular ‘sheep’ (Tu.);
  • mal ‘cattle’ (Tu.);
  • mal kadar=də-na kuza ‘herdsman (lit. cattle herding man)’;

luxury food

  • kăba ‘tree juice’ (unkn. orig.);
  • kojə-n bü ‘birch juice (lit. birch water)’;
  • čaj ‘tea’ ~ segi bü ‘id. (lit. yellow water)’;
  • arā ‘brandy’ (Tu.);
  • taŋgu, tamgu ‘tobacco’ (Tu.).

Mobility

Nomadizing:

  • mĭn- ‘go’ (PS *min-);
  • śu’- ‘move to another dwelling place’;
  • [k͑oi̭e̮̊̄ rtə̊ŋ] ‘deserted dwelling place’ (cf. kojə- ‘leave’);

Reindeer terminology (cf. Klumpp 2005b):

  • to ‘reindeer’ (PS *ce̮ə̑);
  • ťaktə ‘reindoe;
  • **female’ (PS *je̮ kcä);
  • kora ~ kura ‘reinbull; male’ (PS *kora);
  • akta(ŋ) ‘castrated’ (Tu.;
    • replaced PS *kaptə̑- id. ← PTu. qap- ‘grab with the teeth’);
  • kura’dəna to ‘uncastrated reindeer’ (cf. kura ‘bull’);
  • tergijö ‘rein calf, Maral calf’ (PS *cə̑rkəj ‘rein calf’);
  • tüdüget ‘one year old reindeer’ (unkn. orig.);
  • [gə̑i̭’g̀ə̑] kura to ‘two year old male reindeer’;
  • arə=j kura to ‘three year old male reindeer (lit. rein bull of size; cf. PS *årə̑ ‘size, bigness’);
  • pünzü ‘two year old reindoe’ (unkn. orig.);

  • amdoj ‘ear mark’ (cf. Selk. *ān(č)ə- ‘show’, or Tu. causative verb amdoj=dər- ‘mark’);
  • aŋno’ ‘bridle, rein’ (cf. aŋ ‘mouth’ < PS *äŋ);
  • mĭne ‘head collar, halter’ (PS *winä);
  • tergü ‘harness lace’ (Tu.);
  • [ə̑ŋə̑rďåk͑ ] ‘saddle (for reindeer, made from reindeer skin’ (Tu. ıŋır ‘saddle’);
  • bori’ ‘holed wooden or boney lasso end’ (unkn. orig.);
  • ťes=sən [ďes̀ı̑ ṇ̀ ] ‘leather bag for transporting vessels’ (cf. PS *jetə̑‘vessel’);

Horse terminology:

  • ine ‘horse’ (? cf. PS *juntə̑ ← PTu.);
  • šüjme ‘mare; female’ (PS *kejmä);
  • askər ‘stallion’ (Tu.);
  • kulukka ‘foal’ (Tu.);

equine coat colours:

  • ala ‘brindled, spotted’ (Tu.);
  • bora ‘grey’ (Tu.);
  • bozəra ‘bay (fox)’ (Tu.);
  • ťokur ‘skewbald’ (Tu.);
  • kaltar ‘brown with white mouth and tale’ (Tu.);
  • ōj ‘white-blue’ (Tu.);
  • sagər ‘black’;
  • toru ‘brown’;

  • ezəŋgö ‘stirrup’ (Tu.) ~ pakzən id. (cf. Klumpp 2009);
  • kĭžen ‘lace with a wooden plug’ (Tu.);
  • kon=zan ~ kon=zən ‘saddle’ (*kon- ‘carry’);
  • koskun ‘tale lace’ (Tu.);
  • sulu’ ‘bridle, bit’ (Tu.);
  • šürgəje ‘belly strap’ (unkn. orig.);

  • boš ine ‘lone horse’ (Tu.);
  • ťalaŋ ‘on horse, astride’ (Tu.);
  • oškar- ‘take somebody along on horseback’ (Tu.);

Ski:

  • tejme ‘ski, snow shoe’ (unkn. orig.);
  • kabəj ‘skin under the ski’ (? Tu. *kawe-* ‘glue on’);
  • kaŋgəjak ‘ski forming wood’ (Tu.);
  • tĭs ‘foot strap on ski’ (unkn. orig.);
  • sürü ‘ski pole’ (cf. PS *cürə id.);

Sledge:

  • šor ‘sledge’ (Tu.);
  • **nartə id. (Ru. or older; replaced PS *kə̑ncə̑ id.).

Dwelling

  • ma’ ‘tent, house’ (PS *mät);
  • kuba=j ma’ ‘winter tent (i.e. skin tent)’;
  • amdəro’ ‘smoke hole’ (← Mat., cf. амдэ ‘smokes’) ~ mazəro id. (unkn. orig.);
  • jado ‘tent pole’ (unkn. orig.);
  • jada ‘village’;
  • tö’ ‘tent square (made from birch bark)’ (PS *t1et1,*t1e̮ t1);

  • tura ‘log house; living room’ (Tu.);
  • batpolə ‘cellar’ (Ru. подполье);

  • sănzada ‘fire place (inside the dwelling)’, amor=də-na ťardə ‘food serving bord (lit. eating bord)’;
  • amdəro ‘box, case’ (Tu.);
  • ťepsü ‘cradle’ (PS *je̮psə);
  • bappə ‘bed’ (PS *wat3wə̑);
  • šuktu’d ‘sleeping coat, fur’ (Tung.);
  • ťasta’ ‘cushion’ (Tu.).

Clothing

  • parga ‘fur coat’ (PS *parka);
  • paľto ‘coat’ (Ru.);
  • küjnek ‘shirt, blouse’ (Tu.);
  • pi’mə ‘trousers’ (PS *pit3mä id.);
  • ‘sleeve’ (PS *tüəj id.);
  • türəj ‘lining’ (unkn. orig.);
  • ťi ‘belt’ (PS *ji);

  • (epkü=j) h’ama ‘boots from reindeer skin (fur inside)’ (PS *päjmä ‘boot’);
  • palu’ ‘boot strap’ (? Tu.);
  • uba ‘glove’ (PS * opa);

  • üžü ‘cap’ (Selk. *ükə);
  • plat ‘headcloth’ (Ru.);

  • ńimi ‘needle’ (PS *nejmä), ńimi-n pidi-t ‘needle’s eye’;
  • sar=zo ‘thread’ (sar- ‘bind, knit’);
  • šö’- ‘sew’ (PS *ket1- ‘bind, sew’);

  • kuguj ‘earring’ (ku ‘ear’).

Metallurgy

  • baza ‘iron’ (PS *wesä);
  • altən ‘gold’ (Tu.);
  • ťes ‘copper, bronze’ (Tu.);
  • kola ‘brass’ (Tu.);
  • korgəľďən ‘lead’ (Tu.);
  • kümüš ‘silver’ (Tu.);

  • us ‘blacksmith’ (Tu.);
  • uzar=də-na baza ‘ambos (lit. forging iron)’.

Habitat and weather

  • ťălam ‘Sayan’ (unkn. orig.);
  • măja ‘mountain’ (PS *mə̑ja ‘earth, terrain’);
  • ā ‘summit in the Sayan’;
  • ťeje ‘(mountain) forest’ (cf. Taiga);
  • nor=zəbi ťü ‘lichenous ground’;
  • nĭmi ‘mossy ground’;

  • ajaŋ ‘steppe’ (unkn. orig.);
  • kăra’ ‘steppe’ (Tu.);

  • ‘water, big river’ (PS *wit ‘water’), ku-n bü ‘Kan’ (Tu., older kaŋ-ən bü);
  • m_=j [mə̊ =̭i ńir] ‘Mana (lit. upstream of M.)’;
  • ťăga ‘small river, brook’ (PS *jə̑ ka ‘river’);
  • tu ‘lake’ (PS *to);
  • talaj ‘sea’ (Mong.);
  • bü=j=zen ‘ice hole’ (bü=j- ‘fetch water’);

  • sĭre ‘snow’ (PS *si̮ ra);
  • kadaŋ ‘fresh snow in autumn’ (cf. PS *kacə̑ ‘snow flurry’);
  • kamo ‘snow crust’ (PS *kämpə) ~ tōt ‘snow crust’ (Tu. toŋot);
  • körtük ‘snow bank’ (Tu.);
  • ölegən ‘soft wet snow in spring’ (unkn. orig.);
  • süzə ‘snow on branches (unkn. orig.);

  • surno ‘rain’ (PS *sara- ‘to rain’);
  • boj ‘ice’ (Tu.);
  • tōš ‘glaze, clear ice’ (Tu.);
  • berži ‘wind’ (PS *merkä);
  • kuja ťemdə-le’bə ‘the sun is warming’ (PS *kaja ‘Sonne’).

Religion and mythology

  • num ‘heaven, weather; God’ (PS *num);
  • kudaj ‘God; icon’ (Tu. ← Pers.);

  • tarbə ‘shaman’ (PS *caräpä, *cacäpä);
  • peri ‘shaman’s drum’ (cf. PS *peŋkär id., *pe- ‘shamanize’);
  • bĭšše ‘drumstick’ (< PS *pe-) ~ tepsin id. (? nom. instr. =zin);
  • penzüt ‘helping spirit’ (< PS *pe-; *samə- ‘shamanize; hold church service’ (PS *sampə̑-** ‘perform magic’);
  • [āлı̮̄-] ‘fumigate (shaman)’;

  • kigö ‘silk cloth (in sacrifice ceremony)’ (< ? PS *kə̑jkə̑ ‘ghost’);
  • ťegər ma’ ‘church’ (Tu. täŋri ‘sky; God’);
  • abǝs ‘priest’ (Tu.);
  • kăzəl nămərka ‘Easter (lit. red egg)’ (Tu.);

  • majə ‘breath soul’ (PS *wäjŋ-);
  • kolmu ‘spirit of passed away person’ (PS *kalmɜ ‘dead body, spirit’);
  • eje ‘master, local spirit’ (Tu.), bü-n eje-t ‘whater ghost’;
  • enəidəne ‘evil spirit; devil’ (unkn. orig.).

  • tamnug-ən ne ‘frog woman’.

Kinship and persons

  • aba ‘father’ (Tu.);
  • ija ‘mother’ (Tu.);
  • ĭmbə ‘father in law’ (PS *inə̑pə̑), ĭmbə=ńi [ə̊m̀bəńi] ‘mother in law’;
  • ńi ‘boy;
  • **son’ (cf. ńe- ‘give birth’);
  • ko’bdə ‘girl; daughter’ (PS *kaptɜ);
  • kaga ‘elder brother’ (Tu.);
  • paba ‘elder sister’ (PS *äpa);
  • pĭbi ‘younger sibling’ (PS *pepä);
  • urgāba ‘grandfather’ (< urga ‘big’ + aba), urgāja ‘grandmother’ (< urga + ija);

  • tugan ‘relatives, kin’ (Tu.);
  • ör ‘clan, family, tribe’ (Mong.);

  • ešši tet- ‘give birth to a child (lit. bring a child)’;
  • ne ‘woman’, nüke ‘married woman’, tibi ‘man’, büźe ‘married man’;
  • ďźalbak ulu=zəbi kuza ‘idiot, blockhead (lit. person with a head like a waterfowl foot’).

Nations

Samoyedes:

self designation

  • kaŋmažə ‘Kamas’ (Katz 1980: < qam qāč ‘shaman Qača’);

other Samoyedes

  • mador ‘Mator’;
  • solo ‘Qaragas’;

Turks:

  • bĭje ‘Steppe-Tatar’ (Tu. bäg ‘master, lord’, cf. Udm. biger ‘Tatar’);
  • kărdəj ‘Tatar’ (kărat=əj ‘steppy’);
  • kojbol ‘Qoibal’ (Tu.);
  • kāš ‘Qača, Xakas, Minussinsk Tatar’;
  • sagaj ‘Sagaj’ (Tu.);
  • no ~ nu ‘Tatar (partly also Kamas self designation)’ (cf. Hsiung nu);
  • nu-zan šĭkkə-t ‘Tatar language’;

Other:

  • kodo ‘Kott’;
  • kazak ‘Russian’;
  • [ďi̮rə̑k͑ ] ~ [ďž́ìri̮k] ‘Siberian Russian’ (Tu. jürük ‘refugee, migrant’);
  • sojān ‘Soyot’ (Mong.);
  • tuŋguzə ‘Tungus’ (Ru.);
  • uražə ‘ancient Siberian people’ (unkn. orig.);

  • il ‘people’ (Tu.).
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Pub: 10 Dec 2022 13:01 UTC
Edit: 10 Dec 2022 13:23 UTC
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