The Piracy Glossary

Table of Contents

General Terms🏴‍☠️

Everythin' ye young scallywags needs t' know afore sailin' the seven seas

Term Definition
2FA Two-factor authentication (2FA) is a security process in which users provide two different authentication factors to verify themselves. 2FA adds an additional layer of security to the authentication process by making it harder for attackers to gain access to a person's devices or online accounts
Adblock(er) An extension used in browsers to block advertisements across various sites.
Antivirus A security program designed to detect, prevent, and remove malware from computers, networks, and other devices.
Archive A computer file or folder that has been compressed to save space. This allows multiple files to be merged into a single file for more efficient portability. Examples include zip, rar, 7z, and tar.
DDL A Direct Download Link or simply Direct Download is a URL that lets you download content from a server/website using an encrypted connection (HTTPS) and can be done through any browser.
DMCA takedown notice A Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) takedown notice is a legal request to remove infringing content from a website or online service.
DNS Domain Name System (DNS) is a protocol that converts domain names to their IP addresses. Using a different DNS provider can allow you to bypass your ISP's blocking and also block some ads.
Download Manager A DL manager is a powerful tool that greatly increases the convenience and ease of DDLs. They have many advantages over downloading from a browser. Firstly, better resume capabilities, i.e. being able to repair broken and resume interrupted downloads better than browsers. E.g., you have a large download and are unsure whether you can complete it in time, your browser fails randomly or you receive an error while downloading, you lose connection, you have unstable internet, your computer shuts down or loses power, you accidentally terminate a VPN connection, etc. Situations like these can be completely avoided by using a DL manager. Note: resume capability depends on whether the file host/website you're downloading from supports it. Most of the time, they will. Secondly, they can increase download speeds, which is especially useful for users with slower internet speeds. This is possible by segmenting downloads into multiple chunks and opening multiple connections to the same server. Lastly, some DL managers also have additional features, like browser integration for easily downloading from your browser using the DL manager, organising downloads using categories or managing the file structure, auto extracting archive files, etc.
Encoding Encoding is the process of converting data from one format to another. This can be done for many reasons, such as to make the data more compact, to improve compatibility, or to improve quality.
False Positive An instance in which antivirus software incorrectly classifies benign content as malicious. This is a common occurrence with cracked software, videogames, and keygens.
Firewall A firewall is a network security device that monitors incoming and outgoing network traffic, allowing or blocking data packets based on a set of security rules. Its purpose is to establish a barrier between your internal network and incoming traffic from external sources (such as the internet) in order to block malicious traffic like viruses and hackers. More info [1][2].
FTP File Transfer Protocol. This is the protocol used for file transfers from client to server and from server to client. With a FTP application you can move/transfer files to another computer connected to the internet independent of machine type or operating systems. The FTP protocol is used in the scene for the warez servers.
IRC Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a text-based chat system for instant messaging. IRC is designed for group communication in discussion forums.
NFO .nfo (also written .NFO or NFO, a contraction of "info", or "information") is a filename extension for text files that accompany warez scene releases of pirated software or media. NFO files contain information about the release, such as the digital media title, authorship, year, or license information.
Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Peer-to-Peer (P2P) is the broadest application of file distribution, P2P programs use networks of users interconnected directly through their own PCs to relay search requests and facilitate distribution of pirated software and/or content among every user on the network. P2P includes programs and networks such as: BitTorrent, DirectConnect, eDonkey, Gnutella, LimeWire, etc.
Proxy A proxy server is a dedicated computer or a software system running on a computer that acts as an intermediary between an endpoint device, such as a computer, and another server from which a user or client is requesting a service.
Ripping Ripping is the process of extracting digital content, such as audio or video files, from a physical source like a CD, DVD, or Blu-ray disc, and converting it into a digital file format. This allows you to store, share, and play the content on various devices without the need for the original physical media.
The Scene The Warez scene, often referred to as The Scene, is a worldwide, underground, network of pirate groups specializing in obtaining and illegally releasing digital media for free.
Virtual Machine A Virtual Machine (VM) is a logically-defined approach to computing which enables the flexible use of physical architecture to service multiple functions. By sharing a pool of physical resources (such as CPU, RAM, and disks) multiple “machines” can run simultaneously, increasing resource utilisation efficiency and functionality, without the need for separate computers.
Usenet A decentralized network of servers where users can exchange messages and files. To access Usenet, you typically need a subscription to a Usenet service provider, a newsreader software to browse and download the content, and an NZB file, which serves as a roadmap to locate and retrieve specific files within the vast network.
Userscript A script or a piece of JavaScript code that is written by users to enhance, customize, or automate the functionality of a website or web application.
VPN A Virtual Private Network(VPN) works by creating an encrypted connection between your device and a remote server, which then routes your online activity through that server. This process effectively hides your true IP address. VPNs are particularly useful for accessing geo-restricted content and maintaining anonymity.
VirusTotal Virustotal or VT is a website that provides a free online service for analyzing files and URLs to detect viruses, worms, trojans, and other kinds of malicious content.
Warez A term used to describe pirated content such as software, video games, music files, etc.

Books / Comics / Manga Terms📚

Terms related to books, comics , manga, and other literature piracy

Term Definition
Adaptation In manga, an adaptation means either that a manga is being "turned into an anime", or that something else is "being turned into a manga".
ASIN Amazon Stock Identification Number (ASIN); a 10-digit unique product identifier applied by the Amazon Kindle Store to ebook editions.
Calibre Calibre is a free cross-platform, open-source eBook management software. Calibre is often used by pirates to remove DRM from Ebooks.
Doujinshi A doujinshi (同人誌) is a term for an indie manga. If a manga is published by a publisher on a magazine, that's not a doujinshi, but if it's an artist printing the manga themselves to sell it personally, then that's a doujinshi.
E-reader An e-reader reader is a device designed as a convenient way to read e-books, it also refers to software that allows the reading of e-books and other documents independent of dedicated e-book devices. Here's a list of free e-book readers.
File-types Index of File Formats.
ISBN International Standard Book Number (ISBN); globally applied 13-digit (10 digits until 2005) cataloguing system, now extended to ebooks.
Mangaka A mangaka (漫画家) is a "comic artist," i.e. someone who draws manga.
Manga Reader A Manga Reader is an application to read locally stored manga better.
Manhua Manhua(漫画) refers to Chinese comics. It's a Chinese word for "comics" .
Manhwa Manhwa(만화) refers to Korean comics. It's a Korean word for "comics".
Raw A raw manga is an untranslated copy of a manga.
Scanlation The unofficial translation of manga, usually by fans, which is then distributed online without authorization.
Scanlator A scanlator is someone who acquires a copy of a manga, scans it, and then translates it.
Webmanga A webmanga is a manga published on the internet, on the web, rather than on paper.
Webtoon A webtoon is typically a South Korean webcomic.

Movie / TV / Anime Terms 🎬

Terms related to movies, tv shows, and other film piracy

Term Definition
Bitrate Bitrate refers to the amount of data that is processed or transmitted per unit of time. Higher bitrates generally produce higher-quality video, but they also require more storage space and bandwidth for transmission. E.g., roughly based on different streaming services, ~8,000+ kb/s for 1080p and ~16,500+ kb/s for 2160p (4K) is generally the lower limit before compression starts to become more noticeable, though content can still look good below these ranges. However, it's worth noting that the relationship between bitrate and quality is not always linear. Factors like the codec, encoder settings, resolution, content complexity (how much stuff is happening in a scene), source, and release group, all play significant roles in determining the perceived quality.
Codec A ‘codec’ is a specification on how to convert from raw data to images on a screen. When a video file is stored, there is a specific codec that converts that data into what you see. The two most common codecs for movies/TV are H.264, also called MPEG-4 AVC, and H.265, also known as HEVC, the latter being the successor to H.264.
Dubs / Dubbing The term "dubbing" commonly refers to the replacement of the actor's voices with those of different performers speaking another language, which is called "revoicing" in the film industry.
Fansub Fansubs are unofficial subtitles for any show/movie. These can be original translations made by fans or just edits for a better experience. Given how this can be a lot of work, translating, typesetting, quality-checking, etc., fansubbing is typically done by several people working as a fansub group.
Hardsubs Hard encoded subtitles, or Hardsubs, are permanently enabled subtitles that can't be toggled off, as they are edited into the video frames. HC subs are quite rare and aren't always indicated in the title of the release (e.g., HC or HARDCODED).
IPTV IPTV (Internet Protocol Television) is a digital television broadcasting protocol that allows users to stream television content over the internet.
Muxing In the context of video, Muxing is the process of encapsulating multiple audio/video/subtitle tracks into a single file using a container format, like .mkv or .mp4. You can then use a video player, like MPV, to choose the different tracks/subtitles you want.
OAD Original Animation Disc (OAD) is an anime bundled as a bonus disc into a limited edition manga volume that never aired on TV or anywhere else.
ONA Original Net Animation (ONA) is an anime that was first made available through the internet.
OST The term original soundtrack (OST) is used to describe titles of albums of soundtrack music. It's also sometimes used to differentiate the original music heard and recorded versus a re-recording or cover version.
OVA Original Video Animation (OVA) refers to anime that was first sold as DVDs or Blu-ray.
Raw A raw is an untranslated version of an anime, in Japanese, without subtitles.
Release Group A group of individuals responsible for encoding, packaging, and releasing pirated films & shows. A List of Release Groups.
Release Types Index of all release formats, Ultimate Guide to Movie Piracy Terms or Simple index of piracy releases. & Breakdown of Release types, video quality & warez release names.
Remux A remux is a release that has had its contents transferred from one container format to another. The video/audio in the new container will be identical to the ones in the original file, meaning there is no loss in quality. A common example of this is an unaltered Blu-ray release, where the container file on the Disc is converted into .mkv or .mp4. So a Blu-ray Remux indicates that it's a lossless rip.
Resolution The amount of detail in a video or image, measured in pixels (p). Standard resolution nowadays is 1080p (also called Full HD or FHD), meaning 1920 x 1080 pixels. The most common resolutions are 480p (SD), 720p (HD), 1080p (FHD), 1440p (2K or QHD), and 2160p (4K or UHD).
Softsub Softsubs are normal subtitles that can be toggled on and off. There are usually two types: external files (e.g., .srt, .ass) and embedded or muxed subtitles. (See "Muxing")
Subtitles Subtitles are text representing the contents of the audio in a film, television show, or other audiovisual media. Subtitles might provide a transcription or translation of spoken dialogue. Although naming conventions can vary, captions are subtitles that include written descriptions of other elements of the audio like music or sound effects. List of all subtitle formats.
Telesync/HDTS A telesync or TS release is different from a typical CAM release as it has the potential for better-quality audio/video. The audio feed is captured with a direct connection to the sound source (often from a hearing-impaired feed or an FM radio signal from a drive-in theater); the video feed is often, though not always, captured using a professional camera on a tripod in the projection booth, in which case the release is labeled as HDTS for HD video recordings. These are the main differences between CAM and TS.
Widevine Widevine is a digital rights management (DRM) service developed by Google used to help protect online content from piracy. It's used by a wide variety of popular streaming services to prevent users from downloading or copying their TV shows and movies. More info here

Music Terms 🎶

Terms related to music and other forms of audio piracy

Term Definition
Bitrate Bitrate refers to the amount of data used to encode digital music files. It affects the sound quality of the music, with higher bitrates generally resulting in better quality sound. When it comes to pirated music, the bitrate can vary depending on the source of the file. Lower bitrate files may result in poor quality, distortions or artifacts in the music. E.g High bitrate = 320 kilobits per second (kbps) & Low bitrate = anything below 128 kilobits (kbps).
Bootleg Unauthorized recordings of live performances or broadcasts.
File-types E.g., some lossless formats include: FLAC, and ALAC (Apple); some lossy formats include: AAC, MP3, and Opus. For a full list, see this Wikipedia article.
LAME LAME Ain't An MP3 Encoder (LAME) is an encoder that converts and compresses any input audio file and outputs an MP3 file. More info on LAME.
Leak A music leak is an unauthorized release of music over the internet. Songs or albums may leak days or months before their scheduled release date. In other cases, the leaked material may be demos or scrapped work never intended for public release. Leaks could also be an intentional mechanism used by labels or artists to gauge the fanbase or wider response to a track and to create pre-publicity for a release.
Lossless Lossless audio preserves all the original recorded data. There are two types of lossless audio: uncompressed (larger files) and compressed (size slightly reduced).
Lossy Audio that has been compressed, resulting in a smaller file size.
Spectral Analysis Spectral analysis is a visual way to display the data in a music file. More in-depth info on Spectral Analysis.
Transcodes Transcoding (verb) a file means converting from one format to another. A transcode (noun) can mean any converted file, but is usually used in a negative context (as in a bad transcode). Source with examples of transcodes.
Transparency Transparency is a term used to describe the audible quality of a lossy music file. A lossy file is considered transparent if the average human cannot tell the difference between a lossy and a lossless version of the same song just by listening to both without knowing which file is which. For most people, MP3 192kbps (CBR) is considered transparent.

Software 💿 / Video-game Terms 🎮

Terms related to software & video-game piracy

Term Definition
CFW Custom firmware or simply CFW, referring to an altered version of the original system software (also known as the official firmware or simply OFW) inside a video game console.
Clean Steam Files (csf) Game files that are not cracked. They're exactly what gets downloaded directly from Steam. Use them to apply your crack/steam emulator. (E.g., Goldberg emulator, Nemirtingas emulator)
Crack A file or group of files that let you bypass, or "crack" the DRM protection on a game or software to allow you to use/play it without the need to pay. Note: Antivirus applications will occasionally flag cracks as suspicious files due to their origins and means of creation. Use caution when using Keygens and applying cracks, and if possible do so in a sand-box or on a test system.
Denuvo Denuvo is an anti-tamper technology and DRM scheme developed by Austrian software company Denuvo Software Solutions GmbH. It is designed to protect video games from being cracked, copied, or shared illegally.
DLC Downloadable content (DLC) is additional content created for an already released video game, distributed through the Internet by the game's publisher.
DLC Unlocker A software tool or modification that allows users to access and use DLC (downloadable content) in a game without actually purchasing it.
Emulator A software program that allows a computer to run games designed for a different platform, such as console games on a PC.
File-types Detailed Index of filetypes for different consoles.
Homebrew Homebrewing—also referred to as modding, hacking, or jailbreaking—is the act of modifying your gaming consoles to run unofficial software.
Keygen A key generator (key-gen) is a computer program that generates a product licensing key, such as a serial number, used to unlock or activate features in a piece of software. Typically keygens are used to unlock features or bypass nag-screens. Normally crafted by the community to facilitate software piracy, occasionally keygens are created by manufacturers.
Loader A program that modifies a game's executable file in order to bypass its copy protection.
Patch A patch is a small computer program that modifies the machine code of another program.
Pre-cracked Game or Software files have already been cracked and have a simpler installation process.
Pre-install / Portable Games or Software that has already been installed into a directory folder to be extracted and used without any installation needed.
Release Group A group of individuals responsible for cracking, packaging, and distributing pirated games. A List of Release Groups.
Repack Games that have been compressed so you can download it in its entirety, often pre-cracked, or with a crack included.
ROM A file that contains a copy of a game's data, often used with emulators to play games on different platforms.
Steam Emulator (Emu) A Steam emulator (Emu) is software that allows users to play Steam games without using the official Steam client.
Trainer Game trainers are cheat applications which allow the player to alter the characteristics of the game to their advantage. Examples include allowing god or "invincible" mode, providing unlimited ammunition or lives. Many trainers are created using hacking tools and may be flagged as malicious executables by antivirus programmes. The trainer may run in parallel with the game or applied in a similar fashion to a crack.

Torrenting Terms 🧲

Terms related to torrenting

Term Definition
Availability The number of full copies of a file (or set of files and directories) directly available to the client. Each seed adds 1.0 to this number, as they have one complete copy of the file. A connected peer with a fraction of the file available adds that fraction to the availability, if no other peer has this part of the file.
BitTorrent The most widely used form of peer-to-peer filesharing. BitTorrent is a decentralised system which coodinates download distribution (see "Tracker") but doesn't host any downloads. Downloads are automatically segregated into pieces which are gathered from peers and re-assembled into usable files by the torrent client.
Connectability Connectability relates to the state of “being connectable”. Being connectable means that an incoming port on your computer is open thereby allowing “other peers in the Bit Torrent swarm to be able to make connections to you” (that is to say, “people in the same torrent as you can contact you in order to share data.”). A connectable user can share data with anyone in the torrent whereas a unconnectable user is restricted to sharing data only with peers who are connectable, being unconnectable also negatively affects the speed of the “swarm”.
Cross seed When the same torrent is on two different trackers, you can donwload it from one, then seed to both.
Freeleech Freeleech means that the download size of the torrent does not count towards your overall ratio, only the uploaded amount on the torrent counts toward your ratio.
Hash The hash is a digital fingerprint in the form of a string of alphanumeric characters (typically hexadecimal) in the .torrent file that the client uses to verify the integrity of data that is being transferred. "Hash" is the shorter form of the word "hashsum". Torrent files contain information such as the URL of the torrent's tracker, a list of files contained within a torrent, their size, format, and relevant attributes. The torrent client will check each "piece" of the torrent against the hash. If it fails verification, the data is discarded and requested again.
Hit-and-run(HnR) To intentionally "leech" a file; downloading a file while seeding as little as possible.
IP Address An IP address, or Internet Protocol address, is a unique numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. It serves as a way to identify and locate devices on a network, allowing them to communicate with each other and with other networks. IP addresses can be dynamic or static, meaning they can change or remain the same over time.
Leech / Leeching Leech has two meanings. Often, leecher is synonymous with downloader: simply describing a peer or any client that does not have 100% of the data. The term leech also refers to a peer (or peers) that has a negative effect on the swarm by having a very poor share ratio, downloading much more than they upload.
Magnet A type of hyperlink that enables the downloading of files and data from P2P sharing networks, particularly torrent networks.
Peer A peer is one instance of a BitTorrent client running on a computer on the Internet to which other clients connect and transfer data. Depending on context, "peer" can refer either to any client in the swarm or more specifically to a downloader, a client that has only parts of the file.
Port Forwarding Port forwarding, sometimes called port mapping, allows computers or services in private networks to connect over the internet with other public or private computers or services. Video Explaining Port Forwaring or Beginners Guide to Port Forwarding.
Private Tracker A private tracker is a BitTorrent tracker that restricts use by requiring users to register with the site. The method for controlling registration used among many private trackers is an invitation system, in which active and contributing members are given the ability to grant a new user permission to register at the site, or a new user goes through an interview process.
Public Tracker Public or open trackers can be used by anyone by adding the tracker address to an existing torrent, or they can be used by any newly created torrent.
Ratio Ratio or Share Ratio is a number determined by dividing the amount of data that user has uploaded by the amount of data they have downloaded. Final share ratios over 1.0 carry a positive connotation in the BitTorrent community, because they indicate that the user has sent more data to other users than they received. Likewise, share ratios under 1 have negative connotation.
Seed / Seeding A seed refers to a machine possessing all of the data (100% completion). A peer or downloader becomes a seed when it completely downloads all the data and starts uploading data for other peers to download from. Seeding is the uploading of already downloaded content for others to download from.
Seedbox A Seedbox is a server box that is rented each month to download and seed torrent files. Seedboxes are generally used for the uploading and downloading of digital files generally making use of the BitTorrent protocol though they can also be used on other file sharing websites.
Super-Seeding Super-Seeding (aka 'Initial Seeding') is an algorithm for the BitTorrent communications protocol that helps downloaders become uploaders more quickly, but it introduces the danger of total seeding failure if there is only one downloader.
Swarm All peers (including seeds) sharing the same content are called a swarm.
Torrent A torrent file or meta-info file is a computer file that contains metadata about files and folders to be distributed, and usually also a list of the network locations of trackers, which are computers that help participants in the system find each other and form efficient distribution groups called swarms.
Tracker A BitTorrent tracker is a special type of server that assists in the communication between peers using the BitTorrent protocol. The "tracker" server keeps track of where file copies reside on peer machines, which ones are available at time of the client request, and helps coordinate efficient transmission and reassembly of the copied file.

Changelog 📜

Note: Only the last 5 changelogs will be shown.


  • Added "Cross seed" definition


  • Updated "DDL" definition
  • Rewrote "Download Manager" definition
  • Added "Telesync" and "Clean Steam Files"
  • Tweaked "Lossy" audio definition


  • Added higher quality logo (thank you Frisk)
  • Fixed comma inconsistencies
  • Rewrote Softsub definition
  • Tweaked Hardsubs, IPTV, OST, Leak, and Crack definitions
  • Rewrote definitions for Keygen, and BitTorrent


  • Rewrote audio File-types definition
  • Rewrote audio Lossy and Lossless definitions


  • Resized the logo
  • Tweaked Bitrate and Release Group definitions

Source & Discord 💬


Created and maintained by Kaizen and The9655
Thanks to everyone who has contributed to the glossary: TheBolRyder, Duck, Venroot, @succ_, @frisk_tobyfox, @failxxl, DogancanYr

If you have any suggestions, changes, or questions feel free to reach out on the FMHY Discord or Divolt server ❤️

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Pub: 26 Mar 2023 19:05 UTC
Edit: 18 Apr 2024 18:45 UTC
Views: 108735