Uralo-Siberianの類型論

  1. Uralo-Siberianの類型論
    1. Map (9): Adjectives as a distinct part of speech.
    2. Map (10): Antipassive and indefinite object affixes.
    3. Map (11): Auxiliary verbs.
    4. Map (12): Consonant clusters and monosyllabic stems.
    5. Map (13): Copular constructions.
    6. Map (14): Diphthongs and long vowels.
    7. Map (15): Distributive affixes and suppletive plural forms of verbs.
    8. Map (16): Ejectives and multiple stop series.
    9. Map (17): Ergative morphology.
    10. Map (18): Front rounded vowels and schwa.
    11. Map (19): Genitive and accusative case marking.
    12. Map (20): 'Have'constructions.
    13. Map (21): Head/dependent marking.
    14. Map (22): Inclusive/exclusive 1st person plural
    15. Map (23): Incorporation.
    16. Map (24): Indicatives bused on participles.
    17. Map (25): Initial and intervocalic/ŋ/.
    18. Map (26): Initial /p/.
    19. Map (27): Initial and intervocalic /r/.
    20. Map (28): Initial /s/ and /c/.
    21. Map (29): Initial sonorants.
    22. Map (30): Morphological causatives and applicatives.
    23. Map (31): Morphological evidentials and attitudinal affixes.
    24. Map (32): Morphological and auxiliary verb negation.
    25. Map (33): Morphological passive and/or inverse.
    26. Map (34): Non-finite subordinate clauses.
    27. Map (35): Noun classes and classificatory verbs.
    28. Map (36): Noun phrase order.
    29. Map (37): Number affixes.
    30. Map (38): Palatal consonant series.
    31. Map (39): Phonemic /q/ and glottal stop.
    32. Map (40): Possessive affixes.
    33. Map (41): Prefixation versus suffixation.
    34. Map (42): Prepositions versus postpositions and local case systems.
    35. Map (43): Stem-internal ablaut.
    36. Map (44): Stem reduplication.
    37. Map (45): Stress.
    38. Map (46): Switch reference and reflexive possession.
    39. Map (47): Tense conflation in indicatives.
    40. Map (48): Tones.
    41. Map (49): Transitive versus intransitive verbal paradigms.
    42. Map (50): Voiceless fricatives and lateral.
    43. Map (51): Vowel harmony.
    44. Map (52): Vowel systems.
    45. Map (53): Word order.

Map (9): Adjectives as a distinct part of speech.


Ket, CK, some Penutian以外では形容詞がない
叙述用法は状態動詞として、限定用法は分詞で表される
Chukotkan:circurafixで形容詞を作る
Koryak, Alutorではこれは限定用法に使えない。CKではVolodinによると形容詞は状態動詞のような曲用体系でのみ用いられた
CKでは副詞も同様。
Ketでは形容詞は名詞としてふるまい、叙述用法で所有接辞が使われる

Map (10): Antipassive and indefinite object affixes.


Eskimo, Tsimshian, Chukotkanは能格言語なので当然逆受動態標示を持つ。初期に能格性を持っていたとされるAleutも同様。
Yukagir, Itelmen, Haida, Na-Deneは同様の役割を持つindefinite objectを持つ
In ND (and Haida) these overlap with 'areal' prefixes.
Algonquian has similar affixes, whereas in Salishan the middle voice covers antipassive-like function.

Map (11): Auxiliary verbs.

Map (12): Consonant clusters and monosyllabic stems.

Map (13): Copular constructions.

Map (14): Diphthongs and long vowels.


二次的

Map (15): Distributive affixes and suppletive plural forms of verbs.

Map (16): Ejectives and multiple stop series.

Map (17): Ergative morphology.

Map (18): Front rounded vowels and schwa.

Map (19): Genitive and accusative case marking.

Map (20): 'Have'constructions.


'be'動詞 + locative or possessiveはアジア側
独立した動詞'have'によるものはアメリカ側とエスキモー語
Na-Dene, which has independent 'have' verbs of an existential type, but also employs transitivized classificatory or other 'neuter theme' verbs (compare its lack of morphological copula).
YukagirはEAのような'have'接辞とUralo-Siberianの 'be' verbに由来する'have'動詞の両方がある

Map (21): Head/dependent marking.


northern Eurasiaでは従属部標示 (with case marking on noun arguments of verbs and possessor markers on possessors rather than possessed heads)
North Americaのほとんど (excepting much of California)では主要部標示
. This feature she regards as particularly robust, often influencing other aspects of a language's grammar.
EAは二重標示(cross-referencing case-marked noun arguments on the verb and marking possession relationships both on possessor and possessum)
アジア側ではNivkh, Ket, Ainuだけ主要部標示(modified in Ket by the recent development of a case-like system), although Nivkh has rather little morphology. Tungusic languages (especially strong in Nanai)の主要部標示はアムール語の、Yakutの主要部標示はエニセイ語の影響かもしれない

Map (22): Inclusive/exclusive 1st person plural


Uralo-Siberian共通ではなく、上層語の影響

Map (23): Incorporation.

Map (24): Indicatives bused on participles.


Uralo-SiberianとAltaic共通で、分詞にpersonal subject markersのついた語形が1st and 2nd personで使われる
UralicやCKのいくつかの言語では分詞に関係しない直説法も見られるが、これは分詞としての役割を失っただけである
Uralic, however, there is also some evidence of an earlier tenseless aorist in which the person/number markers were attached directly to the verbal stem (this may have a parallel in the socalled 'general' paradigm of Aleut). In Turkic and Mongolian the feature is even more marked than in Uralo-Siberian languages, with various other, non-participial nominalizations being used in finite indicative function.
Yupikはpast/perfectとpresentの分詞形を区別する
Aleutにはremote tense participleが、Inuitのいくつかの方言にはrecent past participleがみられる
Nivkhでは人称接辞のつかない分詞が直説法として用いられる

Map (25): Initial and intervocalic/ŋ/.

Map (26): Initial /p/.

Map (27): Initial and intervocalic /r/.

Map (28): Initial /s/ and /c/.

Map (29): Initial sonorants.

Map (30): Morphological causatives and applicatives.

Map (31): Morphological evidentials and attitudinal affixes.

Map (32): Morphological and auxiliary verb negation.

Map (33): Morphological passive and/or inverse.

Map (34): Non-finite subordinate clauses.

Map (35): Noun classes and classificatory verbs.

Map (36): Noun phrase order.


AN

Map (37): Number affixes.

Map (38): Palatal consonant series.

Map (39): Phonemic /q/ and glottal stop.

Map (40): Possessive affixes.

Map (41): Prefixation versus suffixation.

Map (42): Prepositions versus postpositions and local case systems.

Map (43): Stem-internal ablaut.

Map (44): Stem reduplication.

Map (45): Stress.

Map (46): Switch reference and reflexive possession.

Map (47): Tense conflation in indicatives.

Map (48): Tones.

Map (49): Transitive versus intransitive verbal paradigms.


Transitive (or 'objective') verbal paradigm: 主語だけでなく目的語とも一致を起こす動詞の活用
Oregon以北の北西アメリカ (with the exception of Haida and some W)やUralo-Siberianで見られる。
Janhunen (1982,35) はobjective paradigmをProto-Uralicに再建した
EA and Yukagirと違ってUralic and the ND and CKでは受動分詞にはobjective paradigmがない
CKのtransitive paradigmはsubject prefixesとobject suffixesからなる
Algonquian and some Salishanでも同様
lack of subject as well as object markers on verbsはHaida, Nivkhで見られる

Map (50): Voiceless fricatives and lateral.


voiceless fricativesはItelmen以外では見られない
Yupik, Aleutのは二次的
Inuitは子音クラスタや重子音が変化したもの
EA (except some Inuit and Aleut where it has been lost) では側面無声摩擦音のみ見られ、これはGateway areal feature
ChukchiにはEskimoから借用
NDは側面音がいっぱいあるので無声摩擦音も見られる
northern Ostyak, southern ('forest') Nenets, ItelmenはChukchiと無関係に側面無声摩擦音を持つ

Map (51): Vowel harmony.


シベリア諸語ではよく見られるが、統一的ではない
CKではTungusicらしいroot-retracted or 'compact' harmony
Kerek and eastern AlutorではEskimoの影響で母音調和がない
root retraction harmonyはinterior Salishanにも見られ、独自の改新とされるがNivkhとの古いつながりも言われている
Proto-Uralicはpalatal vowel harmony、Proto-Mongolian, Turkic, Yukagirと共通

Map (52): Vowel systems.


アジア側では4~5個のフルセットの母音と簡素な子音が、アメリカ側では3個以下の簡素な母音と複雑な子音が見られる

Map (53): Word order.


SOVがほとんど
SVOはChukotkan, Alaskan Eskimoで最近見られる

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Pub: 08 Jan 2023 03:19 UTC
Edit: 08 Jan 2023 13:30 UTC
Views: 75