中原メソッド実践編 無名シベリア言語

古シベリア諸語としてen.wpに挙げられてる9言語

  • Proto-Yeniseian
  • Proto-Uralic
  • Proto-Eskimo
  • Proto-Yukaghir
  • Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan
  • Proto-Nivkh
  • Proto-Korean
  • Proto-Ainu
  • Proto-Japanese

をもとに、なんだかそれっぽいシベリアの言語を作るのがゴール

音声

母音

Front Central Back
Close i/ü ɨ ï/u
Mid e ë/o
Open ä a
reduced ə
i ü ɨ ï u e ë o ä a ə
front + + + - - + - - + - -
raised - - + + + + + + - - -
retracted - - - - - + + + + + -
round - + - - + - - + - + -

子音

[+/- son] : 共鳴音(流音、渡り音、鼻音)/阻害音(破裂音、摩擦音、破裂音)
[+/- voice]
[+/- cont] : 摩擦音、流音、渡り音/停止音(破裂音、破擦音、鼻音)
[+/- nas] : 鼻音/それ以外
[+/- lat] : 側面音/それ以外
[+/- del rel] : 破擦音/それ以外
[+/- trill]
[+/- round]
[+/- high] : 口蓋化/非口蓋化

place: labial/alveolar/velar/uvular

語彙

以下の32語が挙げられている。
やっていきましょう。

  • 子音では[son][voice][cont][nas][lat][del rel][trill][round][high][labial, alveolar, velar, uvular]
  • 母音では[front][raised][retracted][round]

の各項目に係数をつけていき、
1/3未満なら(-)
1/3~2/3なら(+-)
2/3より大きければ(+)
音素自体も採用の可否は同じ基準
https://rentry.co/m62kk

Proto-Yeniseian cɨʔɢ-; kəŕga-
Proto-Uralic *ojwa
Proto-Eskimo *nay(ə)quʀ
Proto-Yukaghir *joː
Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan C *læwət
Proto-Nivkh *d’oŋkr
Proto-Korean *matuy
Proto-Ainu pa; sa
Proto-Japanese tumu-; kàsìrà
c ɨ ʔ ɢ
k ə ŕ g a
o j w a
n a y q u ʀ
j
l æ w ə t
d’ o ŋ k r
m a t u y
p a
s a
t u m u
k à s ì r à

9/12[3/9 son][3/9 voice][2/9 cont][2/9 nas][1/9 lat][0 del rel][0 trill][0 round][2/9 high][1/9 labial, 6/9alveolar, 2/9velar, 0 uvular]
→[tdn]

10/12[2/10 front][4/10 raised][6/10 retracted][3/10 round]
→[ïëaə]

7/12[5/7 son][5/7 voice][6/7 cont][1/7 nas][0 lat][0 del rel][1/7 trill][0 round][4/7 high][0 labial, 5/7 alveolar, 1/7 velar, 1/7 uvular]
→j?

9/12[2/9 son][5/9 voice][3/9 cont][1/9 nas][0 lat][0 del rel][0 trill][2/9 round][0 high][4/9 labial, 1/9 alveolar, 2/9 velar, 2/9 uvular]
→[pbfv]

9/12[1/9 front][5/9 raised][4/9 retracted][4/9 round]
→[ïuëoaə]

5/12[4/5 son][4/5 voice][4/5 cont][0 nas][0 lat][0 del rel][3/5 trill][0 round][1/5 high][0 labial, 4/5 alveolar, 0 velar, 1/5 uvular]
→[jr]?

1/12→∅

[tdn][ïëaə]j?[pbfv][ïuëoaə][jr]?
例:tajpar

hair

Proto-Yeniseian *cəŋe
Proto-Uralic *apte
Proto-Eskimo *nuyaʀ
Proto-Yukaghir manilə/monilə
Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan C *kəðwir
Proto-Nivkh *ŋamrki
Proto-Korean *kar(ák); tǝrǝk
Proto-Ainu *numa
Proto-Japanese *ká-Ci
c ə ŋ e
a p t e
n u y a ʀ
m a n i l ə
m o n i l ə
k ə ð w i r
ŋ a m r k i
k a r á k
t ǝ r ǝ k
n u m a
k á C i

10/11[5/10 son][5/10 voice][10/10 cont][5/10 nas][0 lat][0 del rel][0 trill][0 round][1/10 high][2/10 labial, 4/10 alveolar, 4/10 velar, 0 uvular]
→[ntdŋkg]

11/11[0 front][3/11 raised][6/11 retracted][3/11 round]
→[ëaə]

8/11[6/8 son][7/8 voice][2/8 cont][5/8 nas][0 lat][0 del rel][0 trill][0 round][1/8 high][3/8 labial, 4/8 alveolar, 1/8 velar, 0 uvular]
→[mn]

6/11[4/5 son][4/5 voice][4/5 cont][0 nas][0 lat][0 del rel][3/5 trill][1/5 round][0 high][1/5 labial, 4/5 alveolar, 0 velar, 0 uvular]
→[dr]?

1/11→∅

11/11[7/11 front][0 raised][3/11 retracted][0 round]
→[ieə]

6/11[4/6 son][4/6 voice][4/6 cont][0 nas][2/6 lat][0 del rel][2/6 trill][0 round][0 high][0 labial, 3/6 alveolar, 3/6 velar, 0 uvular]
→[tdlrkgʀ]?

2/11→∅

→[ntdŋkg][ëaə][mn][dr]?[ieə][tdlrkgʀ]?
例:nëmriʀ

eye

Proto-Yeniseian *de-s
Proto-Uralic *śilmä
Proto-Eskimo *əðə
Proto-Yukaghir waŋ-/woŋ-; *jöː-
Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan *ləlæ
Proto-Nivkh *n’(ə)ŋaɣ
Proto-Korean *nún
Proto-Ainu sik; nuu
Proto-Japanese *mà-n
d e s
ś i l m ä
ə ð ə
w a ŋ
w o ŋ
j ö
l ə l æ
n’ ə ŋ a ɣ
n ú n
s i k
n u
m à n

11/12[8/11 son][9/11 voice][6/11 cont][4/11 nas][1/11 lat][0 del rel][0 trill][2/11 round][3/11 high][3/11 labial, 8/11 alveolar, 0 velar, 0 uvular]
→n

12/12[4/12 front][4/12 raised][4/12 retracted][4/12 round]
→V

4/12[2/4 son][3/4 voice][4/4 cont][0 nas][2/4 lat][0 del rel][0 trill][0 round][0 high][0 labial, 4/4 alveolar, 0 velar, 0 uvular]
→[zl]?

7/12[0 son][6/7 voice][6/7 cont][6/7 nas][0 lat][0 del rel][0 trill][0 round][0 high][1/7 labial, 2/7 alveolar, 4/7 velar, 0 uvular]
→ŋ

4/12[2/4 front][0 raised][3/4 retracted][0 round]
→[äa]?

1/12→∅

→nV[zl]?ŋ[äa]?
例:nalŋa

ear

Proto-Yeniseian ʔɔqtʌ ~ ʔɔgde
Proto-Uralic *peljä
Proto-Eskimo *ciɣun
Proto-Yukaghir *unemə
Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan *vilu
Proto-Nivkh mla; nor
Proto-Korean *kúj
Proto-Ainu *kisAr
Proto-Japanese *mìmì
ʔ ɔ q t ʌ
ʔ ɔ g d e
p e l j ä
c i ɣ u n
u n e m ə
v i l u
m l a
n o r
k ú j
k i s A r
m ì m ì

8/11[2/8 son][3/8 voice][1/8 cont][2/8 nas][0 lat][0 del rel][0 trill][0 round][1/8 high][4/8 labial, 1/8 alveolar, 1/8 velar, 2/8 uvular]
→[pb]

1/11→∅

9/11[5/9 front][3/9 raised][3/9 retracted][3/9 round]
→V

5/11[1/5 son][3/5 voice][2/5 cont][0 nas][1/5 lat][0 del rel][0 trill][0 round][0 high][0 labial, 1/5 alveolar, 3/5 velar, 1/5 uvular]
→[kgxɣ]?

8/11[5/8 son][6/8 voice][3/8 cont][3/8 nas][1/8 lat][0 del rel][0 trill][0 round][1/8 high][1/8 labial, 7/8 alveolar, 0 velar, 0 uvular]
→[dzn]

10/11[4/9 front][4/9 raised][3/9 retracted][4/9round]
→V

5/11[5/5 son][5/5 voice][3/5 cont][2/5 nas][0 lat][0 del rel][2/5 trill][0 round][1/5 high][1/5 labial, 4/5 alveolar, 0 velar, 0 uvular]
→[nr]?

1/11→∅

→[pb]V[kgxɣ]?[dzn]V[nr]?
例:piɣnir

nose

Proto-Yeniseian ʔolk-; xaŋ
Proto-Uralic nere (nēre)
Proto-Eskimo *qəqaʀ
Proto-Yukaghir *jöː-
Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan qiN(qiN); C jeqa
Proto-Nivkh *wiɣ
Proto-Korean *kóh
Proto-Ainu *Etu
Proto-Japanese *páná
ʔ o l k
x a ŋ
n e r e
q ə q a ʀ
j ö
q i N
j e q a
w i ɣ
k ó h
E t u
p á n á

11/10[4/10 son][4/10 voice][4/10 cont][1/10 nas][0 lat][0 del rel][0 trill][1/10 round][2/10 high][2/10 labial, 3/10 alveolar, 2/10 velar, 3/10 uvular]
→[kgxɣqɢχʁ]

11/11[5/10 front][3/10 raised][5/10 retracted][5/10 round]
→V

4/11[3/4 son][3/4 voice][2/4 cont][1/4 nas][1/4 lat][0 del rel][1/4 trill][0 round][0 high][0 labial, 4/4 alveolar, 0 velar, 0 uvular]
→[nrl]?

7/11[2/7 son][3/7 voice][2/7 cont][2/7 nas][0 lat][0 del rel][0 trill][0 round][0 high][0 labial, 0 alveolar, 3/6 velar, 3/6 uvular]
→[kgqɢ]?

5/11[1/5 front][1/5 raised][3/5 retracted][1/5 round]
→a?

1/11→∅

→[kgxɣqɢχʁ]V[nrl]?[kgqɢ]?a?
例:kulka

tooth

Proto-Yeniseian
Proto-Uralic *piŋe
Proto-Eskimo *kəɣun
Proto-Yukaghir toð-; sal’qəriː
Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan C *wannə
Proto-Nivkh *ŋaɣzər
Proto-Korean *ni(s)
Proto-Ainu nii; ima(=)k
Proto-Japanese *pà
p i ŋ e
k ə ɣ u n
t o ð
s a l’ q ə r i
w a n n ə
ŋ a ɣ z ə r
n i s
n i
i m a k
p à

8/10[4/8 son][4/8 voice][2/8 cont][3/8 nas][0 lat][0 del rel][0 trill][1/8 round][0 high][2/8 labial, 4/8 alveolar, 2/8 velar, 0 uvular]
→[tdn]

9/10[4/9 front][1/9 raised][4/9 retracted][1/9 round]
→[iëäaə]

7/10[3/7 son][5/7 voice][4/7 cont][2/7 nas][1/7 lat][0 del rel][0 trill][0 round][1/7 high][2/7 labial, 4/7 alveolar, 1/7 velar, 0 uvular]
→[dzɹ]

5/10[2/5 son][4/5 voice][2/5 cont][2/5 nas][0 lat][0 del rel][0 trill][0 round][0 high][0 labial, 2/5 alveolar, 2/5 velar, 1/5 uvular]
→[dznɹgɣŋɰ]?

7/10[1/7 front][1/7 raised][2/7 retracted][1/7 round]
→[ëaə]

4/10[3/4 son][3/4 voice][2/4 cont][1/4 nas][0 lat][0 del rel][2/4 trill][0 round][0 high][0 labial, 3/4 alveolar, 1/4 velar, 0 uvular]
→[ɹr]?

1/10→∅

→[tdn][iëäaə][dzɹ][dznɹgɣŋɰ]?[ëaə][ɹr]?
例:näzɣər

tongue

Proto-Yeniseian *ʔej
Proto-Uralic kele (kēle)
Proto-Eskimo I *uqaq(-)
Proto-Yukaghir *wonor
Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan *jilə(jil) ?
Proto-Nivkh *hilɣ
Proto-Korean hyet/hita
Proto-Ainu *agu
Proto-Japanese *sìtà
ʔ e j
k e l e
u q a q
w o n o r
j i l ə
h i l ɣ
h i t a
a g u
s ì t à

1/9→∅

7/9[1/7 son][1/7 voice][5/7 cont][0 nas][0 lat][0 del rel][0 trill][1/7 round][0 high][1/7 labial, 1/7 alveolar, 1/7 velar, 4/7 uvular]
→χ

8/9[5/8 front][1/8 raised][2/8 retracted][1/8 round]
→i

7/9[4/7 son][5/7 voice][4/7 cont][1/7 nas][2/7 lat][0 del rel][0 trill][0 round][2/7 high][0 labial, 7/7 alveolar, 0 velar, 0 uvular]
→[dz]

3/9[0 son][2/3 voice][2/3 cont][0 nas][0 lat][0 del rel][0 trill][0 round][0 high][0 labial, 0 alveolar, 2/3 velar, 1/3 uvular]
→[kgxɣqɢχʀ]?

6/9[2/6 front][2/6 raised][3/6 retracted][2/6 round]
→V

2/9→∅
1/9→∅

→χi[dz][kgxɣqɢχʀ]?V
例:χizɣi

mouth

Proto-Yeniseian *χowe
Proto-Uralic *śuwe
Proto-Eskimo *qanəʀ(-)
Proto-Yukaghir *aŋa
Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan *rəkərNə(n)
Proto-Nivkh *amɣ
Proto-Korean ip/kút
Proto-Ainu *prAA=
Proto-Japanese *kútú-Ci
χ o w e
ś u w e
q a n ə ʀ
a ŋ a
r ə k ə r N ə
a m ɣ
i p
k ú t
p r A
k ú t ú C i

6/10[1/6 son][1/6 voice][3/6 cont][0 nas][0 lat][1/6 trill][0 round][1/6 high][0 labial, 2/6 alveolar, 2/6 velar, 2/6 uvular]
→[tskxqχ]?

9/10[1/9 front][4/9 raised][4/9 retracted][4/9 round]
→[ɨïueëoäaə]

10/10[5/10 son][5/10 voice][2/10 cont][3/10 nas][0 lat][0 trill][2/10 round][0 high][5/10 labial, 3/10 alveolar, 2/10 velar, 0 uvular]
→[pbm]

6/10[2/6 front][1/6 raised][1/6 retracted][1/6 round]
→i?

5/10[3/4 son][4/4 voice][4/4 cont][0 nas][0 lat][3/4 trill][0 round][0 high][0 labial, 2/4 alveolar, 1/4 velar, 1/4 uvular]
→r?

1/10, 3/10→∅

→[tskxqχ]?[ɨïueëoäaə][pbm]i?r?
例:χëmir

hand

Proto-Yeniseian *pʌg-
Proto-Uralic *käte
Proto-Eskimo aðɣa(ʀ), aðɣaɣ
Proto-Yukaghir ńuŋkən/ńuŋen
Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan *kæɣ(ə)
Proto-Nivkh *damk
Proto-Korean *són/tar
Proto-Ainu *tE(=)k
Proto-Japanese *tà-Ci
p ʌ g
k ä t e
a ð ɣ a ʀ
a ð ɣ a ɣ
ń u ŋ k ə n
ń u ŋ e n
k æ ɣ
d a m k
s ó n
t a r
t E k
t à C i
Proto-Yeniseian kiʔs; bul
Proto-Uralic *jalka
Proto-Eskimo *itəɣaʀ
Proto-Yukaghir noj-; ar-
Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan *kətka
Proto-Nivkh *ŋazl
Proto-Korean *pál
Proto-Ainu urE; kEma; *tikir
Proto-Japanese *pànkì
k i ʔ s
b u l
j a l k a
i t ə ɣ a ʀ
n o j
a r
k ə t k a
ŋ a z l
p á l
u r E
k E m a
t i k i r
p à n k ì

breast

Proto-Yeniseian *təga
Proto-Uralic *poŋe
Proto-Eskimo *əvyaŋ(ŋ)iʀ
Proto-Yukaghir sis-; mel-
Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan *loloʀ(ə)
Proto-Nivkh *məc(ɣ)
Proto-Korean *cǝc
Proto-Ainu *tOO[C]
Proto-Japanese ti/titi
t ə g a
p o ŋ e
ə v y a ŋ i ʀ
s i s
m e l
l o l o ʀ
m ə c ɣ
c ǝ c
t O C
t i
t i t i

meat

Proto-Yeniseian *ʔise
Proto-Uralic pećä; siwɜ-ĺɜ
Proto-Eskimo kəməɣ; uvinəɣ
Proto-Yukaghir *čuː-
Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan C kinuNi; C tərɣətər
Proto-Nivkh *dur
Proto-Korean *kòkí
Proto-Ainu *kam
Proto-Japanese shishi
ʔ i s e
p e ć ä
s i w ɜ ĺ ɜ
k ə m ə ɣ
u v i n ə ɣ
č u
k i n u N i
t ə r ɣ ə t ə r
d u r
k ò k í
k a m
sh i sh i

blood

Proto-Yeniseian *sur
Proto-Uralic *wire
Proto-Eskimo aðuɣ, kanuɣ
Proto-Yukaghir lep(k)-; čeːmə
Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan *mullə(mul)
Proto-Nivkh cʰoχ; ŋær̥
Proto-Korean *pVhi
Proto-Ainu *kEm
Proto-Japanese *tí
s u r
w i r e
a ð u ɣ
k a n u ɣ
l e p k
č e m ə
m u l l ə
o χ
ŋ æ
p V h i
k E m
t í

bone

Proto-Yeniseian *ʔaʔd
Proto-Uralic *luwe
Proto-Eskimo I *caunəq
Proto-Yukaghir *am-
Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan *qətʀəm
Proto-Nivkh ŋɨɲf
Proto-Korean *sùpyé
Proto-Ainu *ponE
Proto-Japanese *pone
ʔ a ʔ d
l u w e
c a u n ə q
a m
q ə t ʀ ə m
ŋ ɨ ɲ f
s ù p y é
p o n E
p o n e

person

Proto-Yeniseian keʔt; pixe
Proto-Uralic *inše
Proto-Eskimo (inguɣ; taʁu 'shamanic')
Proto-Yukaghir köntə; soromə
Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan qəlavol ?; qəlik 'male'; C *ʀoraNvərr(at)əlʀən
Proto-Nivkh *n’iɣvŋ
Proto-Korean *sarʌm
Proto-Ainu *kur
Proto-Japanese *pítò̱
k e ʔ t
p i x e
i n š e
i n g u ɣ
k ö n t ə
s o r o m ə
q ə l a v o l
q ə l i k
ʀ o r a Nv ə rr (at)əlʀən
n’ i ɣ v ŋ
s a r ʌ m
k u r
p í t ò̱

name

Proto-Yeniseian *ʔiɢ
Proto-Uralic *nime
Proto-Eskimo atəʀ; acciʀ-
Proto-Yukaghir ńuː; kirijə
Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan C *nənnə
Proto-Nivkh *qa(-)
Proto-Korean ìlh(kòt)tá/na
Proto-Ainu *dEE
Proto-Japanese *ná
ʔ i ɢ
n i m e
a t ə ʀ
a c c i ʀ
ń u
k i r i j ə
n ə n n ə
q a
ì lh k ò t t á
n a
d EE
n á

dog

Proto-Yeniseian čip ~ čib
Proto-Uralic *pene
Proto-Eskimo *qikmiʀ
Proto-Yukaghir *laːmə
Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan *qətʀə(n)
Proto-Nivkh *ɢanŋ
Proto-Korean *kahi
Proto-Ainu *gita
Proto-Japanese *ìnù
č i p
č i b
p e n e
q i k m i ʀ
l a m ə
q ə t ʀ ə n
ɢ a n ŋ
k a h i
g i t a
ì n ù

fish

Proto-Yeniseian
Proto-Uralic *kala
Proto-Eskimo *iqałuɣ
Proto-Yukaghir an-/wan-; *anjə ?
Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan *ənnə
Proto-Nivkh *co
Proto-Korean *mǝlkòkí
Proto-Ainu *tiqEp
Proto-Japanese *(d)íwó
k a l a
i q a ł u ɣ
a n
w a n
a n j ə
ə n n ə
c o
m ǝ l k ò k í
t i q E p
d í w ó

louse

Proto-Yeniseian jog- ~ jok 'nit'
Proto-Uralic *täje
Proto-Eskimo *kumaɣ
Proto-Yukaghir peme/pime
Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan *mə(l)məl
Proto-Nivkh dar, hirk; *amrak
Proto-Korean *ni
Proto-Ainu *ki
Proto-Japanese *sìrámí
j o g
j o k
t ä j e
k u m a ɣ
p e m e
p i m e
m ə l m ə l
d a r
h i r k
a m r a k
n i
k i
s ì r á m í

tree

Proto-Yeniseian
Proto-Uralic *puwɜ
Proto-Eskimo uqviɣ; napa(ʀ)aqtuʀ
Proto-Yukaghir *saː-
Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan *ut(tə)
Proto-Nivkh *d’iɣar
Proto-Korean *nàmò̱k(ó)
Proto-Ainu nii; tiku=
Proto-Japanese kò̱- < ko̱no̱r
p u w ɜ
u q v i ɣ
n a p a ʀ a q t u ʀ
s a
u t t ə
d’ i ɣ a r
n à m ò̱ k ó
n i
t i k u
k ò̱
k n r

leaf

Proto-Yeniseian *jə̄pe
Proto-Uralic lešte; lȣ̈pɜ (*lepɜ)
Proto-Eskimo *pəłu
Proto-Yukaghir *pöɣ-
Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan *wətwət
Proto-Nivkh blaŋ(q), d’omr
Proto-Korean *nip
Proto-Ainu *hrA=
Proto-Japanese *pá
j ə̄ p e
l e š t e
l ȣ̈ p ɜ
p ə ł u
p ö ɣ
w ə t w ə t
b l a ŋ q
d’ o m r
n i p
h r A
p á

flower

Proto-Yeniseian
Proto-Uralic *ćȣrɜ (Mansi)
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Yukaghir *polčičə
Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan
Proto-Nivkh ɤŋvk
Proto-Korean *kòcʌ́
Proto-Ainu *Epuy
Proto-Japanese *páná
ć ȣ r ɜ
p o l č i č ə
ɤ ŋ v k
k ò c ʌ́
E p u y
p á n á

water

Proto-Yeniseian *xur
Proto-Uralic *wete
Proto-Eskimo *imaqtəq-
Proto-Yukaghir *law-
Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan *(m)iməl ?
Proto-Nivkh *caʀ
Proto-Korean *mǝí
Proto-Ainu *hdak=ka
Proto-Japanese *mí
x u r
w e t e
i m a q t ə q
l a w
i m ə l
c a ʀ
m ǝ í
h d a k
m í

fire

Proto-Yeniseian *boʔk
Proto-Uralic *tule
Proto-Eskimo *ək(ə)nəʀ
Proto-Yukaghir *loč-
Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan jən ?; milɣə(mil)
Proto-Nivkh *tuɣ(u)r
Proto-Korean *pɨr
Proto-Ainu *apE
Proto-Japanese *pò-Ci
b o ʔ k
t u l e
ə k n ə ʀ
l o č
j ə n
m i l ɣ ə m i l
t u ɣ u r
p ɨ r
a p E
p ò C i

stone

Proto-Yeniseian *čɨʔs
Proto-Uralic *kiwe
Proto-Eskimo qaluʀ; uyaʀaɣ
Proto-Yukaghir söj-/sej-
Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan *ɣəv(ɣəv)
Proto-Nivkh *baʀ
Proto-Korean *tərək
Proto-Ainu suma; pOqina
Proto-Japanese *(d)ísò
č ɨ ʔ s
k i w e
q a l u ʀ
u y a ʀ a ɣ
s ö j
s e j
ɣ ə v ɣ ə v
b a ʀ
t ə r ə k
s u m a
p O q i n a
d í s ò

earth

Proto-Yeniseian *baʔŋ
Proto-Uralic *maγe
Proto-Eskimo nuna, nunałit-
Proto-Yukaghir luk-; öninč’ə
Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan *nutæ ? 'land'
Proto-Nivkh *miv
Proto-Korean *nu(r)i
Proto-Ainu *tOy
Proto-Japanese *tùtì 'land'
b a ʔ ŋ
m a γ e
n u n a
n u n a ł i t
l u k
ö n i n č’ ə
n u t æ
m i v
n u r i
t O y
t ù t ì

salt

Proto-Yeniseian *čəʔ
Proto-Uralic salɜ (sala)
Proto-Eskimo *taʀ(ə)yuʀ
Proto-Yukaghir
Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan
Proto-Nivkh *davc(iŋ)
Proto-Korean *sokom
Proto-Ainu *sippO
Proto-Japanese
č ə ʔ
s a l ɜ
t a ʀ ə y u ʀ
d a v c i ŋ
s o k o m
s i p p O

road

Proto-Yeniseian *qoʔt
Proto-Uralic *teje
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Yukaghir čuɣö; jaw-
Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan rəʀet; təlanvə 'way'
Proto-Nivkh *d’iv
Proto-Korean *kil
Proto-Ainu *truu
Proto-Japanese *mítí < honorific prefix mi- + ti 'road'
q o ʔ t
t e j e
č u ɣ ö
j a w
r ə ʀ e t
t ə l a n v ə
d’ i v
k i l
t r u
m í t í

eat

Proto-Yeniseian *siɢ-
Proto-Uralic sewe- (seγe-)
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Yukaghir *leɣ-
Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan *nu-
Proto-Nivkh *n’i-
Proto-Korean *mǝk-
Proto-Ainu *EE
Proto-Japanese *kup-
s i ɢ
s e w e
l e ɣ
n u
n’ i
m ǝ k
EE
k u p

die

Proto-Yeniseian *qɔ-
Proto-Uralic *kola-
Proto-Eskimo *tuqu(-)
Proto-Yukaghir am-/wam-
Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan C *viʀ-
Proto-Nivkh *mu
Proto-Korean *cuk-
Proto-Ainu *day
Proto-Japanese *sín-
q ɔ
k o l a
t u q u
a m
w a m
v i ʀ
m u
c u k
d a y
s í n

I

Proto-Yeniseian *ʔadᶻ
Proto-Uralic *mȣ̈
Proto-Eskimo uvaŋa; (vi)
Proto-Yukaghir *mət
Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan *kəm
Proto-Nivkh *n’i
Proto-Korean *na/uri
Proto-Ainu *ku=
Proto-Japanese *bàn[u]
ʔ a dᶻ
m ȣ̈
u v a ŋ a
v i
m ə t
k ə m
n’ i
n a
u r i
k u
b à n u

2/11→∅

8/11[4/8 son][7/8 voice][3/8 cont][3/8 nas][0 lat][1/8 trill][0 round][1/8 high][5/8 labial, 2/8 alveolar, 1/8 velar, 0 uvular]
→[bvm]

8/11[4/8 front][0 raised][2/7 retracted][0 round]
→[iə]

7/11[4/7 son][4/7 voice][1/7 cont][4/7 nas][0 lat][0 trill][0 round][0 high][1/7 labial, 3/7 alveolar, 2/7 velar, 1/7 uvular]
→[tdn]

5/11[0 front][2/5 raised][3/5 retracted][2/5 round]
→[iuëoaə]?

1/11→∅

→[bvm][iə][tdn][iuëoaə]?
例:minë

you

Proto-Yeniseian ʔaw ~ ʔu; kʌ- ~ *ʔʌk-
Proto-Uralic *tȣ̈
Proto-Eskimo əlpət, əłvət
Proto-Yukaghir *tit
Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan kəð; tur(i)
Proto-Nivkh *ci
Proto-Korean *ne
Proto-Ainu *E=
Proto-Japanese si/so̱-; *na
ʔ a w
ʔ u
k ʌ
ʔ ʌ k
t ȣ̈
ə l p ə t
ə ł v ə t
t i t
k ə ð
t u r i
c i
n e
E
s i
s
n a

2/15→∅

9/15[0 son][1/9 voice][1/9 cont][0 nas][0 lat][0 trill][0 round][0 high][2/9 labial, 2/9 alveolar, 2/9 velar, 3/9 uvular]
→ʔ

10/15[1/9 front][2/9 raised][3/9 retracted][2 round]
→[aə]

12/15[4/12 son][5/12 voice][5/12 cont][2/12 nas][0 lat][1/12 trill][1/12 round][1/12 high][1 labial, 10/12 alveolar, 1/12 velar, 0 uvular]
→[tdsz]

7/15[5/7 front][1/6 raised][2/6 retracted][1/6 round]
→i?

→ʔ[aə][tdsz]i?
例:ʔəti

文法

形態論
Exclusively suffixal morphology
Accusative case, genitive case and at least three local cases.
singular, plural and dual number.
The absence of adjectives and adverbs as morphologically distinct parts of speech.
Evidentiality marking.
Indicative markers based on participles.
Possessive suffixes
統語
The presence of a copula, used as an auxiliary verb.
Negation expressed by an auxiliary verb (known as a negative verb)
Subordinate clauses based on non-finite verb forms.

Edit
Pub: 22 Dec 2022 13:45 UTC
Edit: 27 Dec 2022 14:28 UTC
Views: 231